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137 terms

Chapter 11: The Cardiovascular System

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aorta
Largest artery in the body.
arteriole
Small artery
artery
Largest type of blood vessel; carries blood away from the heart to all parts of the body.
atrioventricular bundle (bundle of His)
Specialized muscle fibers connecting the atria with the ventricles and transmitting electrical impulses between them. His is pronounced "hiss".
atrioventricular node (AV node)
Specialized tissue in the wall between the atria. Electrical impulses pass from the paacemaker (SA node) through the AV node and the atrioventricular bundle or bundle of His toward the ventricles.
atrium (plural: atria)
One of two upper chambers of the heart.
capillary
Smallest blood vessel. materials pass to and from the bloodstream through the thin capillary walls.
carbon dioxide
Gas (waste) released by the body cells, transported via veins to the heart, and then to the lungs for exhalation.
coronary arteries
Blood vessels that branch from the aorta and carry oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle.
deoxygenated blood
Blood that is oxygen-poor.
diastole
Relaxation phase of the heartbeat
electrocardiogram
Record of the electricity flowing through the heart. The electricity is represented by waves or deflections called P, QRS, or T.
endocardium
Inner lining of the heart
endothelium
Innermost lining of blood vessels.
mitral valve
Valve between the left atrium and the left ventricle; bicuspid valve.
murmur
Abnormal swishing sound caused by improper closure of the heart valves.
myocardium
Muscular, middle layer of the heart.
normal sinus rhythm
Heart rhythm originating in the sinoatrial node with a resting rate of 60 to 100 beats per minute.
oxygen
Gas that enters the blood through the lungs and travels to the heart to be pumped via arteries to all body cells.
pacemaker (sinoatrial node)
Specialized nervous tissue in the right atrium that begins the heartbeat. An artificial cardiac pacemaker is an electronic apparatus implanted in the chest to stimulate heart muscle that is weak and not functioning.
pericardium
Double-layered membrane surrounding the heart.
pulmonary artery
Artery carrying oxygen-poor blood from the heart to the lungs
pulmonary circulation
Flow of blood from the heart to the lungs and back to the heart.
pulmonary valve
Valve positioned between the right ventricle and pulmonary artery
pulmonary vein
One of two pairs of vessels carrying oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart.
pulse
Beat of the heart as felt through the walls of the arteries
septum (plural: septa)
Partition or wall dividing a cavity; such as between the right and left atria (interatrial septum) and right and left ventricles (interventricular septum).
sinoatrial node (SA node)
pacemaker of the heart.
sphygmomanometer
Instrument to measure blood pressure.
systemic circulation
Flow of blood from body tissue to the heart and then from the heart back to body tissue.
systole
Contraction phase of the heartbeat.
tricuspid valve
Located between the right atrium and the right ventricle; it has three leaflets, or cusps.
valve
Structure in veins or in the heart that temporarily closes an opening so that blood flows in only one direction.
vein
Thin-walled vessel that carries blood from body tissues and lungs back to the heart. Veins contain valves to prevent blackflow of blood.
vena cava (plural: venae cavae)
Largest vein in the body. The superior and inferior venae cavae return blood to the right atrium of the heart.
ventricle
One of two lower chambers of the heart.
venule
Small vein.
angi/o
vessel
aort/o
aorta
arter/o
artery
arteri/o
artery
ather/o
yellowish plaque, fatty substance
atri/o
atrium, upper heart chamber
brachi/o
arm
cardi/o
heart
cholesterol/o
cholesterol (a lipid substance)
coron/o
heart
cyan/o
blue
myx/o
mucus
ox/o
oxygen
pericardi/o
pericardium
phleb/o
vein
rrhythm/o
rhythm
sphygm/o
pulse
steth/o
chest
thromb/o
clot
valvul/o
valve
valv/o
valve
vas/o
vessel
vascul/o
vessel
ven/o
vein
ven/i
vein
ventricul/o
ventricle, lower heart chamber
arrhythmias
Abnormal heart rhythms (dysrhythmias)
What 3 examples of arrhythmias does the book list?
bradycardia and heart block (atrioventricular block), flutter, and fibrillation.
bradycardia and heart block (atrioventricular block)
Failure of proper conduction of impulses from the SA node through the AV node to the atrioventricular bundle (bundle of His)
flutter
Rapid but regular contractions, usually of the atria
fibrillation
Very rapid, random, inefficient, and irregular contractions of the heart (350 beats or more per minute).
congenital heart disease
Abnormalities in the heart at birth.
What are the 4 examples of congenital heart disease that the book lists?
coarctation of the aorta (CoA), patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), septal defects, and tetralogy of Fallot.
coarctation of the aorta (CoA)
Narrowing (coarctation) of the aorta.
patent ductus arteriosus (PDA)
Passageway (ductus arteriosus) between the aorta and the pulmonary artery remains open (patent) after birth.
septal defects
Small holes in the wall between the atria (atrial septal defects) or the ventricles (ventricular septal defects).
tetralogy of Fallot
Congenital malformation involving four distinct heart defects. The four defects are: Pulmonary artery stenosis (Pulmonary artery is narrow or obstructed), Ventricular septal defect (Large hole between two ventricles lets venous blood pass from the right to the left ventricle and out to the aorta without oxygenation), Shift of the aorta to the right (Aorta overrides the interventricular septum. Oxygen-poor blood passes from the right ventricle to the aorta), and Hypertrophy of the right ventricle (Myocardium works harder to pump blood through a narrowed pulmonary artery.)
congestive heart failure
Heart is unable to pump its required amount of blood.
coronary artery disease (CAD)
Disease of the arteries surrounding the heart.
acute coronary syndromes (ACSs)
Unstable angina and myocardial infarction (heart attack), which are consequences of plaque rupture in coronary arteries.
endocarditis
Inflammation of the inner lining of the heart.
hypertensive heart disease
High blood pressure affecting the heart.
mitral valve prolapse (MVP)
Improper closure of the mitral valve.
murmur
Extra heart sound, heard between normal beats.
pericarditis
Inflammation of the membrane (pericardium) surrounding the heart.
rheumatic heart disease
Heart disease caused by rheumatic fever.
aneurysm
Local widening (dilation) of an arterial wall.
deep vein thrombosis (DVT)
Blood clot (thrombus) forms in a large vein, usually in a lower limb.
hypertension (HTN)
High blood pressure
peripheral arterial disease (PAD)
Blockage of arteries carrying blood to the legs, arms, kidneys, and other organs.
Raynaud disease
Recurrent episodes of pallor and cyanosis primarily in fingers and toes.
varicose veins
Abnormally swollen and twisted veins, usually occurring in the legs.
angina (pectoris)
Chest pain resulting from myocardial ischemia. Stable angina occurs predictably with exertion; unstable angina is chest pain that occurs more often and with less exertion.
angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor
Antihypertensive drug that blocks the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II, causing blood vessels to dilate. It prevents heart attacks, CHF, stroke and death.
auscultation
Listening for sounds in blood vessels or other body structures, typically using a stethoscope.
beta-blocker
Drug used to treat angina, hypertension, and arrhythmias. It blocks the action of epinephrine (adrenaline) at receptor sites on cells, slowing the heartbeat and reducing the workload on the heart.
biventricular pacemaker
Device enabling ventricles to beat together (in synchrony) so that more blood is pumped out of the hear heart.
bruit
Abnormal blowing or swishing sound heard during auscultation of an artery or organ.
calcium channel blocker
Drug used to treat angina and hypertension. It dilates blood vessels by blocking the influx of calcium into muscle cells lining vessels.
cardiac arrest
Sudden, unexpected stoppage of heart action; sudden cardiac death
cardiac tamponade
Pressure on the heart caused by fluid in the pericardial space.
claudication
Pain, tension, and weakness in a leg after walking has begun, but absence of pain at rest.
digoxin
Drug that treats arrhythmias and strengthens the heartbeat.
infarction
Area of dead tissue
nitrates
Drugs used in the treatment of angina. They dilate blood vessels, increasing blood flow and oxygen to myocardial tissue.
nitroglycerin
Nitrate drug used in the treatment of angina
occlusion
Closure of a blood vessel due to blockage
palpitations
Uncomfortable sensations in the chest related to cardiac arrhythmias, such as premature ventricular contractions (PVCs)
patent
Open
pericardial friction rub
Scraping or grating noise heard on auscultation of the heart; suggestive of pericarditis.
petechiae
Small, pinpoint hemorrhages.
statins
Drugs used to lower cholesterol in the bloodstream.
thrill
Vibration felt over an area of turmoil in blood flow (as a blocked artery)
vegetations
Clumps of platelets, clotting proteins, microorganisms, and red blood cells on diseased heart valves.
BNP test
Measurement of BNP (brain natriuretic peptide) in blood
cardiac biomakers
Chemicals are measured in the blood as evidence of a heart attack.
lipid tests (lipid profile)
Measurement of cholesterol and triglycerides (fats) in a blood sample.
lipoprotein electrophoresis
Lipoproteins (combinations of fat and protein) are physically separated and measured in a blood sample.
angiography
X-ray imaging of blood vessels after injection of contrast material.
computed tomography angiography (CTA)
Three-dimensional x-ray images of the heart and coronary arteries using computed tomography (CT) (64-slice CT scanner)
digital subtraction angiography (DSA)
Video equipment and a computer produce x-ray images of blood vessels
electron beam computed tomography (EBCT or EBT)
Electron beams and CT identify calcium deposits in and around coronary arteries to diagnose early CAD
Doppler ultrasound studies
Sound waves measure blood flow within blood vessels.
echocardiography (ECHO)
Echoes generated by high-frequency sound waves produce images of the heart.
positron emission tomography (PET) scan
Images show blood flow and myocardial function following uptake of radioactive glucose.
technetium Tc 99m sestamibi scan
Technetium Tc 99m sestamibi injected intravenously is taken up in the cardiac tissue, where it is detected by scanning
thallium 201 scan
Concentration of radioactive thallium is measured to give information about blood supply to the heart muscle.
cardiac MRI
Images of the heart are produced using radiowave energy in a magnetic field.
cardiac catheterization
Thin, flexible tube is guided into the heart via a vein or an artery.
electrocardiography (ECG)
Recording of electricity flowing through the heart.
Holter monitoring
An ECG devise is worn during a 24-hour period to detect cardiac arrhythmias
stress test
Exercise tolerance test (ETT) determines the heart's response to physical exertion (stress).
catheter ablation
Brief delivery of radiofrequency or cryosurgery to destroy areas of heart tissue that may be causing arrhythmias.
coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG)
Arteries and veins are anastomosed to coronary arteries to detour around blockages.
defibrillation
Brief discharges of electricity are applied across the chest to stop dysrrhythmias (ventricular fibrillation).
endarterectomy
Surgical removal of plaque from the inner layer of an artery.
extracorporeal circulation
Heart-lung machine diverts blood from the heart and lungs while the heart is repaired.
heart transplantation
A donor heart is transferred to a recipient
percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)
Balloon-tipped catheter is inserted into a coronary artery to open the artery; stents are put in place.
thrombolytic therapy
Drugs to dissolve clots are injected into the bloodstream of patients with coronary thrombosis.