47 terms

Abeka Physics Chapter 14

This set covers A Beka Book Physics Chapter 14: "Heat" (pages 206-221).
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internal energy
term for the measure of an object's molecular kinetic energy and molecular potential energy
heat
term for the transfer of internal energy from one object to another
True
True or False: Heat always moves from a hotter object to a cooler object.
thermometers
term for instruments that measure temperature
thermometry
term for the process of measuring temperature
thermal equilibrium
term for the state in which who objects are the same temperature
triple point
term for the temperature at which the three phases of water achieve equilibrium
4.58 mm Hg and 0 degrees C
pressure and temperature of the triple point of water
Gabriel Daniel Fahrenheit
German physicist who invented the mercury thermometer in 1714
Celsius scale
the standard termperature scale employed for scientific purposes
1/273
When the temperature of a gas rises one degree Celsius, the gas expands by about ___ of its volume at 0 degrees Celsius.
absolute zero
term for the lowest obtainable temperature at which all gases should vanish
-273.15
absolute zero in degrees Celsius
absolute scale
The Kelvin scale of temperature is called a(n) ____ ____ because its lowest possible temperature has the value of 0 K.
0 degrees
the ice point on the Celsius scale
273.15
the ice point on the Kelvin scale
Sir William Thomson (Lord Kelvin)
great nineteenth century physicist who devised the Kelvin scale of temperature
expands
When its temperature rises, a solid ____ in every direction.
linear expansion
term for the expansion along any line through a solid
α
letter that represents the coefficient of linear expansion
True
True or False: Heat causes greater expansion of liquids than of solids.
calorie
a common unit of heat
joule
the metric unit of heat
4.184
One calorie equals ___ Joule(s).
one
In general, it takes about __ calorie(s) to raise a gram of water one degree Celsius.
heat capacity
term for the heat required to raise a body's temperature by one degree
specific heat
term for the heat required to raise the temperature of a unit mass by one degree
-Q lost = Q gained
equation for the law of heat exchange
melting
term for a solid changing into a liquid
endothermic
Since a solid will not actually enter the liquid phase unless heat is supplied by an external source at the melting point, melting is a(n) _____ process.
heat of fusion
term for the heat that must be absorbed per gram to melt a solid
freezing
term for a liquid changing into a solid
exothermic
Because heat is released spontaneously by a freezing liquid, freezing is a(n) _____ process.
vaporization
term for a liquid changing into a gas
heat of vaporization
term for the amount of energy a liquid absorbs at its boiling point to change into a gas
condensation
term for a gas changing into a liquid (the opposite of vaporization)
calorimeter
term for an insulated container in which scientists mix two substances
calorimetry
term for the use of a calorimeter to meaure the equilibrium temperature of a mixture
heat conduction
term for the transfer of heat energy from one part of a body to another
thermal conductor
term for a material that conducts heat efficiently
thermal insulator
term for a material that does not conduct heat efficiently
heat flow
term for the amount of heat transferred from one end of a segment to the other per unit time
thermal conductivity
term for the constant of proportionality, k
conduction
the method of heat transfer in which agitated motion is transmitted between molecules in contact with each other
convection
the method of heat tranfer in which heat is carried by moving material
radiation
the method of heat transfer in which a body at high temperature emits radiation that falls upon another body
conduction, convection, and radiation
the three methods of heat tranfer
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