How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

32 terms

Tumours

STUDY
PLAY
Tumour Associated Antigen
Antigen present on normal cells, magnified in tumour cells
Oncofetal Antigens
Antigens present in embryonic developments
Tumour Specific Antigens
Antigens unique to tumour cells
Point mutation of DNA
macrophage activation
Activation via T cell dervied IFN- G
TNF-B
Lysozyme
02 free radical
NK cells
Lymphocyte that do not need to recognise a specific antigen before releasing toxin.
Tumour cells still susceptible.
Tumour evasion of CTL
lack of co stim
lack of adhesion molecules
lack of class 1 MHC
Tumour evasion of the CTL response
Increased expression of TGF-B and PGE2
Endocytosis of antigen
Fas and FasL
Stimulate patients immune response
Active immunotherapy
DNA vaccines
Stimulate CTL growth
Transfer of cells/ antibodies
Passive immunotherapy
Inject CTL into patient
Tumour Infiltrating Lymphocytes
WBC's loaded with IL-2
Monoclonal Antibodies
Conjugated to radionucleide
Conjugated to toxin
Bind to cancer and activate NK cells
Passive immunotherapy
Invasion factors
Loss of cell to cell adhesion by E cadherin
Attachment to matrix component- laminin
Degradation of ECM
Motility of tumour cells.
Degradation- proteolytic enzymes break away the ECM
Amoeboid movement
Attachment- involvement of intergrin.
How do cells move within the stroma
SNAIL and TWIST
inhibit E caherin in breast cancer (no cell to cell adhesion)
Lymphatic
Haemopoeitic
Seeding
Transcoelomic
Direct
Methods of spread of tumour
Lymphatic spread
Spread commonly used by carcinomas
Haemotogenous spread
Spread commonly used by sarcomas
Compression
Displacement
Ulceration
Bleeding
Destruction
Local effects of tumour
HPV
Type 16 and 18- cervical cancer
DNA intergrated into host genome and E1 and E2
Inhibit E1 and E2 which usually inhibit E6 and E7
E6 and E7 not stopped-uncontrolled growth.
E6 and E7 bind onto pRb and separate it from the E2F (more cell growth)
EBV
Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma
Hodgkins Lymphoma
B cell lymphoma
Burkitts Lymphoma
Cytokines
Signalling molecule released by cells and act locally
Hormones
Signalling molecule released by cells and through blood
Growth factor promoters
Tumours need this in order to start growing after intiation
Breat carcinoma
Increased oestrogen exposure
Due to:
Increased age, long space between menaupause, high fat diet
Endometrial carcinoma
Prolonged oestrogen exposure causes endometrial hyperplasia
Risk: obesity, oestrogen replacement therapy
Prostate cancer
Prolonged exposure androgens, dihydrotestosteron (testosterone metabolite)
Insulin, Gonadotrophin, calcitonin, glucagon, serotonin
Hormones released by tumours
Bronchogenic squamous cell carcinoma
Hypercalacemia
PrTHP paraneoplastic syndrome
Osteolysis
Small cell lung cancer
Cancer causes Cushings syndrome
Release of ACTH, ADH
Renal cell carcinoma/hepatocellular carcinoma
Release of erythropoeitein
Lung cancer
Breast cancer
Cervical cancer
Stomach cancer
Oral cancer
Liver Cancer
Opportunity for primary cancer prevention
Identification of unrecognized cancer
Screening