Tumour Associated Antigen
Antigen present on normal cells, magnified in tumour cells
Antigens present in embryonic developments
Tumour Specific Antigens
Antigens unique to tumour cells
Point mutation of DNA
Activation via T cell dervied IFN- G
02 free radical
Lymphocyte that do not need to recognise a specific antigen before releasing toxin.
Tumour cells still susceptible.
Tumour evasion of CTL
lack of co stim
lack of adhesion molecules
lack of class 1 MHC
Tumour evasion of the CTL response
Increased expression of TGF-B and PGE2
Endocytosis of antigen
Fas and FasL
Stimulate patients immune response
Stimulate CTL growth
Transfer of cells/ antibodies
Inject CTL into patient
Tumour Infiltrating Lymphocytes
WBC's loaded with IL-2
Conjugated to radionucleide
Conjugated to toxin
Bind to cancer and activate NK cells
Loss of cell to cell adhesion by E cadherin
Attachment to matrix component- laminin
Degradation of ECM
Motility of tumour cells.
Degradation- proteolytic enzymes break away the ECM
Attachment- involvement of intergrin.
How do cells move within the stroma
SNAIL and TWIST
inhibit E caherin in breast cancer (no cell to cell adhesion)
Methods of spread of tumour
Spread commonly used by carcinomas
Spread commonly used by sarcomas
Local effects of tumour
Type 16 and 18- cervical cancer
DNA intergrated into host genome and E1 and E2
Inhibit E1 and E2 which usually inhibit E6 and E7
E6 and E7 not stopped-uncontrolled growth.
E6 and E7 bind onto pRb and separate it from the E2F (more cell growth)
B cell lymphoma
Signalling molecule released by cells and act locally
Signalling molecule released by cells and through blood
Growth factor promoters
Tumours need this in order to start growing after intiation
Increased oestrogen exposure
Increased age, long space between menaupause, high fat diet
Prolonged oestrogen exposure causes endometrial hyperplasia
Risk: obesity, oestrogen replacement therapy
Prolonged exposure androgens, dihydrotestosteron (testosterone metabolite)
Insulin, Gonadotrophin, calcitonin, glucagon, serotonin
Hormones released by tumours
Bronchogenic squamous cell carcinoma
PrTHP paraneoplastic syndrome
Small cell lung cancer
Cancer causes Cushings syndrome
Release of ACTH, ADH
Renal cell carcinoma/hepatocellular carcinoma
Release of erythropoeitein
Opportunity for primary cancer prevention
Identification of unrecognized cancer
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