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High Yield Cerebellar Anatomy
Terms in this set (25)
8 Afferent Pathways carrying info to the cerebellum...
3 from the CORTEX:
3 from the Spinal Cord:
3 from the HEAD:
1. Ant. Spinocerebellar
2. Post. Spinocerebellar
2. Mibrain Afferents
4 Efferent pathways carrying info from the cerebellum:
2 controlling AXIAL motor circuits:
2 controlling DISTAL motor circuits:
1. Fastigial Reticular
2. Fastigial Vestibular
Cerebellum is involved in ______________ memory- KFE
Procedural (muscle learning and memory)
Type of IMPLICIT memory
Important: note the CLOSE relationship between the vestibular nuclei and the ____________ cerebellar peduncle
***[Due to redundancy of cerebellar somatotopy] , cerebellar pathologies affect the body ___________ rather than causing the _________-specific deficits that may result from primary motor cortex lesions
The Spinocerebellum is comprised of the _______ and _________ lobe, receiving PROPRIOCEPTIVE input from spinal cord afferent fibers. Its output facilitates muscle tone, gait, balance, and posture in the _______ and ________.
The cerebrocerebellum (you'll also see this as the "neocerebellum") is comprised of the ___________ lobes (longitudinal definition) / POSTERIOR lobes (anatomical definition). It receives input from the neocortex, which is then translated into the coordination of precise, voluntary movements (***including ____________- KFE!!!).
Challenge: If the cerebrocerebellum coordinates speech, which cerebellar deficit could result from damage to the lateral/posterior lobes?
Spinocerebellum Dysfunction: Associate with _______ ________ & ________ ataxia
Cerebrocerebellum receives input from neocortex via _______________ fibers
Function: Coordination of voluntary motor activity and precise movement
Dysfunction of cerebrocerebellum (i.e. Lateral Lobes): __________ voluntary, planned movement; __________
__________________cerebellum is composed of the flocculonodular lobe (flocculus and nodulus)
Vestibulocerebellum receives input from VESTIBULOCEREBELLAR tracts (from the HEAD = semicircular canals and vestibular nuclei) for _______ and ________ sense
Also receives input from mibrain TECTUM (i.e. the ________ _________) for _______ INTEGRATION
Balance and EYE movement
Vestibulocerebellum dysfunction is associated with __________ coordination deficits such as...
poor smooth pursuit
Cerebellum layers that modulate deep cerebellar nuclei activity:
Molecular and granular layers work in opposition to control PURKENJE cells
granular cells ___________ purkenje cell activity
molecular layer __________ purkenje cell activity
If purkenje fiber is excited- it will ____________ deep cerebellar nuclei
Mossy fibers synapse on __________ cells in the __________ cell layer of the cerebellar cortex
The cerebellar cortex receives direct input from 2 fiber types:
__________ fibers from the spinal cord and cerebrum (aka 2 of the cerebral and the 3 spinal afferent tracts), and __________ fibers from the inferior olive (the 3rd cerebral afferent tract).
The thin, unmyelinated axons of GRANULE cells rise vertically to the upper (MOLECULAR) layer of the Cerebellar CORTEX, where the fibers split and run in parallel (hence parallel fibers). As they run along, the parallel fibers pass through the dendritic trees of Purkinje cells, releasing _________________ (+) to stimulate the purkinje cells.
You should know: Via the parallel fibers, the granule cells are ____________ (NT = ____________) to the Purkinje Neurons.
You should know: The golgi, stellate, and basket cells (All found in the MOLECULAR LAYER) are inhibitors of the PURKENJE cells. The golgi cells inhibit the _________ cells (NT= __________), indirectly decreasing their excitation of the ___________ neurons. The stellate and basket cells inhibit Purkinje cells ____________ (NT= ___________).
You should know: The deep cerebellar nuclei are typically EXCITED by the MOSSY & CLIMBING fibers; they are downregulated by inhibitory _________ input from the __________ cells.
You should know: The Purkinje cells pump the BRAKES of the deep cerebellar nuclei when they are stimulated by __________ cells. When the Purkinje cells are (DIRECTLY) inhibited by ________ and _______ cells or (INDIRECTLY) by _________ cells, the deep cerebellar nuclei can function unopposed.
You should know:
The connection between the cerebrum and the cerebellum is important in the control of VOLUNTARY movement. Information regarding the initiation of movement in the __________ __________ is transmitted to the ____________ so that the movement can be monitored and appropriate adjustments in the muscle activity can be made.
Voluntary Movement Control:
Cerebral Cortex sends cerebellum information about motor ____________
The cortex provides input to the cerebellum through 3 pathways, which all go to the cerebrocerebellum (most lateral wedge of the cerebeullum):
1. Corticopontocerebellar pathway (crossed; relay in the pontine nuclei; enters the cerebellum via the _________ cerebellar peduncle:
2. Corticoreticulocerebellar pathway (UNCROSSED; relay in the reticular nuclei; enters the cerebellum via the ________ and ________ cerebellar peduncle)
3. Cortico-olivocerebellar pathway (CROSSED; relay in the inferior olive; enters the cerebellum via the ________ cerebellar peduncle)
2nd order axon cell body located in the olive of the medulla 2nd order neuron decussates and enters the inferior cerebellar peducle and enters cerebellar cortex via the climbing fibers (these fibers can DIRECTLY stimulate the ___________ neurons- EXAM QUESTION)
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