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Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia (MEN)

an inherited cancer syndrome that affects different glands in different family members while the genetic cause remains the same


internal secretion


the secreted substances from the exocrine glands that diffuse from the interstitial fluid into the bloodstream

Local Hormones

other glands that secrete substances into the internal environment that are not hormones but function in similar fashion as messenger molecules


secretions that enter the interstitial fluid but affect only neighboring cells; a local hormone


secretions which only affect the secreting cell; a local hormone

Exocrine Glands

another category of substances that are secreted into tubes or ducts that lead to the body surface

Examples of Exocrine Glands

stomach acid reaching the lumen of the digestive tract and sweat released at the skin's surface

Target Cells

only cells a hormone can respond to

Target Cell's Receptors

proteins or glyco-proteings with binding sits for a specific hormone

Chemically, Hormones Are

either steroids or nonsteroids


lipids that include complex rings of carbon and hydrogen atoms

All Steroid Hormones

are derived from cholesterol

Examples of Steroid Hormones

testosterone, estrogen, secretions of the adrenal cortex (outer), aldosterone, cortisol

Vitamin D

a modified steroid that can be converted into a hormone


hormones, including norepinephrine and epinephrine, that are derived form the amino acid tyosine and are also synthesized in the adrenal medulla (inner)

Protein Hormones

hormones that, like all proteins, are composed of long chains of amino acids

Protein Hormones Include

the hormones secreted by the parathyroid land and some of those secreted by the anterior pituitary gland


hormones, secreted by the anterior pituitary gland, which consist of proteins joined to carbohydrates

Peptide Hormones

hormones that are short chains of amino acids and are associated with the posterior pituitary gland and hypothalamus


paracrine substances that are lipids and are synthesized from a type of fatty acids in the cell membranes

Prostaglandins Include

cells of the liver, kidneys, heart, lungs, thymus gland, pancreas, brain, and reproductive organs


an increase in the number of receptors on a target cell, often in response to a prolonged decrease in the level of a hormone


a decrease in the number of receptors due to a prolonged increase in hormone levels

Optic Nerve (II)

sense of sight

Olfactory nerves (I)

sense of smell

Oculomotor nerves (III)

focusing lens of eye

Vestibulocochlear Nerves (VIII)

sense of equilibrium and hearing

Facial Nerves (VII)

sense of taste, salivation, tear secretions

Trochlear Nerves (IV)

stimulate superior oblique eye muscle

Abducens Nerves (VI)

lateral eye movements

Glossopharyngeal Nerves (IX)

regulate blood pressure, salivation, and swallowing

Vagus Nerves (X)

regulate many visceral organs including the heart rate

Accessory Nerves (XI)

control neck and shoulder muscles

Hypoglossal Nerves (XII)

control tongue movements

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