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35 terms

midterm test (extensive)

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Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia (MEN)
an inherited cancer syndrome that affects different glands in different family members while the genetic cause remains the same
Endocrine
internal secretion
Hormones
the secreted substances from the exocrine glands that diffuse from the interstitial fluid into the bloodstream
Local Hormones
other glands that secrete substances into the internal environment that are not hormones but function in similar fashion as messenger molecules
Paracrine
secretions that enter the interstitial fluid but affect only neighboring cells; a local hormone
Autocrine
secretions which only affect the secreting cell; a local hormone
Exocrine Glands
another category of substances that are secreted into tubes or ducts that lead to the body surface
Examples of Exocrine Glands
stomach acid reaching the lumen of the digestive tract and sweat released at the skin's surface
Target Cells
only cells a hormone can respond to
Target Cell's Receptors
proteins or glyco-proteings with binding sits for a specific hormone
Chemically, Hormones Are
either steroids or nonsteroids
Steroids
lipids that include complex rings of carbon and hydrogen atoms
All Steroid Hormones
are derived from cholesterol
Examples of Steroid Hormones
testosterone, estrogen, secretions of the adrenal cortex (outer), aldosterone, cortisol
Vitamin D
a modified steroid that can be converted into a hormone
Amines
hormones, including norepinephrine and epinephrine, that are derived form the amino acid tyosine and are also synthesized in the adrenal medulla (inner)
Protein Hormones
hormones that, like all proteins, are composed of long chains of amino acids
Protein Hormones Include
the hormones secreted by the parathyroid land and some of those secreted by the anterior pituitary gland
Glycoproteins
hormones, secreted by the anterior pituitary gland, which consist of proteins joined to carbohydrates
Peptide Hormones
hormones that are short chains of amino acids and are associated with the posterior pituitary gland and hypothalamus
Prostaglandins
paracrine substances that are lipids and are synthesized from a type of fatty acids in the cell membranes
Prostaglandins Include
cells of the liver, kidneys, heart, lungs, thymus gland, pancreas, brain, and reproductive organs
Up-regulation
an increase in the number of receptors on a target cell, often in response to a prolonged decrease in the level of a hormone
Down-regulation
a decrease in the number of receptors due to a prolonged increase in hormone levels
Optic Nerve (II)
sense of sight
Olfactory nerves (I)
sense of smell
Oculomotor nerves (III)
focusing lens of eye
Vestibulocochlear Nerves (VIII)
sense of equilibrium and hearing
Facial Nerves (VII)
sense of taste, salivation, tear secretions
Trochlear Nerves (IV)
stimulate superior oblique eye muscle
Abducens Nerves (VI)
lateral eye movements
Glossopharyngeal Nerves (IX)
regulate blood pressure, salivation, and swallowing
Vagus Nerves (X)
regulate many visceral organs including the heart rate
Accessory Nerves (XI)
control neck and shoulder muscles
Hypoglossal Nerves (XII)
control tongue movements