Upgrade to remove ads
interpersonal com test 1
Terms in this set (34)
purposes, methodology, objectives
What are the three philosophical pillars we use to study a paradigm?
A paradigm is the fundamental points of view of a science
-A typical example or pattern
What is a paradigm?
POSITIVISM: confirmable knowledge. based on natural phenomena and their properties and relations. Information derived from sensory experiences, interpreted through reason and logic, forms the exclusive source of all certain knowledge. Rejection of unobservable and unmeasurable. POST: scientific reasoning and common-sense reasoning are essentially the same process.
Epistemology (what is knowing?): knowledge is relatively independent from researchers.
Ontology (what is reality?): truth is out there. One observative reality intersubjectivity.
Axiology (what about value?): relatively value free.
What are the main features of post-positivist paradigm? How do researchers in these three paradigms answer questions about epistemology, ontology, and axiology differently?
human relations built on the interpretation of each other's messages, index meanings, and finding "the ordering principles that enable the interactants to display meanings to each other." researcher can never assume a value-neutral stance, and is always implicated in the phenomena being studied.
Epistemology (what is knowing?): independent/dependent
Ontology (what is reality?): multiple realities. "Truth" is relative.
Axiology (what about value?): valueladed
What are the main features of interpretive paradigm? How do researchers in these three paradigms answer questions about epistemology, ontology, and axiology differently?
human relations are built on ideology, which is a collection of norms (what's considered to be appropriate), beliefs (assumption without challenge), and values (judgements of right/wrong). The ideology reflects the inequality of power distribution. Therefore, it is essential for research (influenced by dominant structure) to examine power structure.
Epistemology (what is knowing?): dependent
Ontology (what is reality?): multiple realities."Truth" by the dominant class.
Axiology (what about value?): valueladed
What are the main features of Critical paradigm? How do researchers in these three paradigms answer questions about epistemology, ontology, and axiology differently?
A set of interrelated concepts, definitions, and propositions that present a systematic view of phenomena by specifying relationships among the concepts, with the purpose of explaining and predicting the phenomena. For interpretivists the major purpose is to understand and interpret. For critical researchers, the main purpose is to critique or stir a social action.
what is a theory?
Concept, definition, relationship, proposition, purpose.
do you understand the key words in definition of theory?
Truth, measurement, ideology, datata. However, good theories help us connect data with a logical explanation.
what is not theory?
Explanatory power: casual relationship.
Predictive power: accuracy.
Parsimony: simplicity is preferred to complexity.
Falsifiability (Popper) vs confirmation (Carnap): having a ground to be rejected or improved.
Heuristic value: help generate new ideas.
Organizing power: organize knowledge in a specific subject area? Logical consistency.
Applicability: pragmatic, significance.
Do you understand the seven criteria to evaluate a theory?
Interpersonal communication is a process where a dyad or a small number of people exchange, negotiate, and create ideas and feelings through verbal and nonverbal behaviors. It is influenced by the channel and the environment.
Sender + receiver
Nonverbal + verbal
Chanel / method
Encode → Transmit → Decode process
Involves no more than 3 people
what is interpersonal communication?
Understanding the interpersonal communication process demands an understanding of the symbiotic relationship between communication and relational development: communication influences relational development, and in turn (or simultaneously) relational development influences the nature of communication between parties to the relationship"
Why are interpersonal communication and relationship development intertwined?
What is the paradigm of AAT?
Action features-small pieces of information about thoughts and actions stored in an individual
Activation- (process term) selectively triggering the action features. Basically a selection process. Decay- some action features do not get to be selected.
Assembly- (process term) When two or more complementary action features are fit together.
Coalitions- has several important properties. End product of assembly. Will remain activated longer.
Overt behavior- end product of coalitions.
Consciousness- degree of the active observing and monitoring of coalitions and over behavior production. Low consciousness example is driving a car- you are so familiar with the action process
Understand key concepts: action features, activation, assembly, coalition, overt behavior, and consciousness.
Performance failures are stemming from lack of either ability or motivation. Sometimes we have the ability and motivation but still cannot produce a socially skilled response. Temporal features of a message, such as pauses and speech rate, are fascinating. Many instances of disfluency and hesitation stem from difficulties in meshing (assembling) incompatible message features. Important evidence to support AAT because understanding of how communication can be improved.
Based on AAT, why are pauses, stemmers, verbal fillers (e.g., "um," "like," "you know," etc.) considered to be important evidence to support AAT?
The theory is concerned with why and how it is that you produce the verbal and nonverbal behaviors (overt behaviors) you exhibit when interacting with others like the things you say, how you say it, facial expressions and gestures, etc. AAT is concerned with that transpires in our minds (action features) when we formulate and produce verbal and non-verbal messages
Describe the theory (AAT) based on above key concepts.
Primary Goal/Influence Goals: to ultimately influence another individual, which initiates the process of message production. There are 7 types of influence goals
What is an influence message? (GPA)
Gain assistance- obtain material or nonmaterial resources- can i use your car to go shopping?
Give advice- provide counsel (often about health and relationships)- I'm worried about you because you've been drinking a lot lately. Do you think you should take a break from it?
Share activity- promote joint endeavors between source and target- let's do something together tonight. How about going to see that new band?
Change orientation- engage target on a sociopolitical issue- I'm going to do my class project on medical marijuana. There are some good reasons to legalize it.
Change relationship- alter the nature of the source target relationship- I'm not sure we should see each other anymore. I think we need to take a break.
Obtain permission- secure the consent of the (more powerful) target- would it be OKAY if I handed in the assignment one day late?
Enforce rights and obligations- compel target to fulfill commitment or role requirement- I'm still trying to study, you promised that you would keep the music down. So, how about it?
What are the most frequently identified reasons for influencing others? Can you give examples of each? You do not need to memorize these types but should be able to recognize each.
Future states of affairs that an individual is committed to achieving or maintaining. Goals are what people are trying to do.
What is a goal?
primary goal: what you are trying to achieve with the plan.
secondary goals: a concern that arises from a primary goal. Five secondary goals exist:
Identity goals- focus on ethical, moral, and personal standards for behavior
Conversation management goals- involve concerns about impression management and face.
Relational resource goals- focus on relationship management. Manifestations of the value that individuals have for social and personal relationships.
Personal resources goals- reflect the physical, temporal, and material concerns of the communicator. Arise from the desires to maintain or enhance one's physical well-being, temporal resources, finances, and material possessions.
Affect management goals- the theory posits that individuals try to create or maintain preferred affective states.
What is a primary goal? What secondary goals does GPA propose? What do they mean?
Plan: mental representations of messages and message sequences that are intended to enable goal attainment.
Strategies- concerned with actions/ sequence of behavior. Larger. Cognitive representation of the sequence of behavior.
Tactics. Way more concrete, units of verbal and nonverbal behavior.
Now on plans. What is the difference between a strategy and a tactic?
Explicitness- degree to which the source makes her or his intentions transparent in the message itself. Explicit messages require little or no guesswork regarding the speaker's wants, but implicit messages necessitate more interpretation. (clarity).
Dominance- power of the source compared to the target as expressed in the message.
Legitimacy: due to the role they have the power to make demands and expect compliancy
Referent: attractiveness, worthiness, likeability
Argument- references the extent to which some rationale for the sought- after action is present (versus absent) in the message. (reasoning).
Control over outcomes- refers to the extent to which the source has control over the reason for compliance. Makes clear the difference between a threat and a warning.
One should consider these four dimensions during the process of developing an influence message because it is important to determine that best approach that applies best to your situation. For example, a doctor is considered an expert in the medical field, thus changing their role and approach to influence a patient to use a certain medicine
What are the four dimensions used to develop and assess a plan? How should we consider these four dimensions to plan an influence message?
AAT- What kind of of action featured are activated? How can we control that? More internal, intrapersonal. More general. Passive.
GPA- Thoughts to action, organized structure. Evaluating what is around you (interactional). More testifiable/ verifiable. Active. Situational.
Similarities: message production process, Overlapping concepts (strategies and tactics).
What are similarities and differences between AAT and GPA?
Observation: the action or process of observing someone/something
Inference: using these observations to make further assumptions and conclusions
What is the difference between an observation and an inference?
Descriptive Statement: based on observation (accuracy is key)
Inferential Statement: based beyond simple observations
What is the difference between a descriptive statement and an inferential statement?
The family of theory that answer how and why we try to answer "how and why" questions is referred to as attribution theory. This set of interrelated theories attempts to describe and explain the mental and communicative processes involved in everyday explanations, most typically explanations of individual and social events.
Leans heavily toward a logical-empirical view of the world (post positivist). Understanding the world around us is considered universal and predictable.
What is attribution, and what are attribution theories aimed at?
I agree. I agree that we do make sense of such events that are unexpected primarily by determining what the cause is.
According to Heider, people actively interpret the events that occur in their lives? Do you agree or disagree? Why?
Internal ----------> external (cause is internal or external to the person)
Example: good test on grade because she's smart, internal
Luck is external
Stable -------> unstable (the cause is temporary ot enduring)
Responsible -------> not responsible (a person can be held as responsible or blameworthy for an event)
Responsible for smartness if they worked on it their own. Not responsible for it if parents were demanding and forcefull.
What are the four main dimensions that attributions vary on? What do they mean?
Connected with stereotypes and generalized bias
Example: I know what it is like to be hispanic because I have 2 Spanish friends (when in reality those 2 experiences do not engulf all of hispanic culture)
Principle of negativity
We tend to focus on people's negative behavior
Humans have a natural tendency to avoid danger / harm so they want to know / be aware of the negatives
Self- serving bias
I (or we)
Other (or they)
Other: someone I don't know
I or we: someone I love or care about
Example: driving. Someone else cutting you off and rushed vs when you do it. Self serving bias.
Roommate conflict. Usually when roommate complaining, it's the other person's fault. Ex is room temperature.
I (or we)
Other (or they)
Other person does something bad its external.
Example: Low self-esteem → negative reinforcement
Blaming yourself and not recognizing the reality
Fundamental attribution error (FAE)
When people make observations on others behavior, more external than internal
We like a predictable environment
Example: mass shootings happen so often now a days. When we read news, the news describes the shooters behavior as video game violence is an attribution for the behavior, mental health issues. Attribute the shooter as if there is something internal about his behavior. Video games in external.
What are the five types of attribution biases/errors? Can you think of examples to illustrate each?
Basically people develop "personal constructs" about how the world operates → then people use these constructs to explain their experiences and observations
What are personal constructs?
Personal construct theory:
Primary cognitive structure to place things, people, and relationships. Formed since preverbal
Personal constructs shape personality, and decide meaning making
What is a symbol?
Something that represents something else and has a specific meaning. Anything can be a symbol. Example is I can be a symbol- a Villanova student. They can be subjective- can mean different things to other people.
People act toward things based on the meaning those things have for them.
These meanings are derived from social interactions.
What are the two components of constructivism theory? Can you use your own words to summarize the key ideas of each?
Verbal and nonverbal behavior to provide assistance to others perceived as needing that aid.
What is supportive communication?
Elaboration: Systematic and thoughtful.
What are the names of the two processes in the dual process theory? What do they mean?
Motivated recipient: make the other person WANT to listen to you
Self-efficacy (ability): message provided should be properly utilized
Message efficacy (quality): message should be valuable
Affective state (Goldilocks' rule): keep the person's emotions in check
What are the four elements that decide whether messages will be centrally or heuristically processed?
Friends Episode: personal constructs are reflected based on how the person responds to the explanation. For example, Ross intended compliment Phoebe on her dating decisions, but Phoebe reacted the opposite way because of her personal experiences and emotions.
In our in-class activity about being an expert and explain something to a listener, how are personal constructs reflected?
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR