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Circuits Midterm- Mississippi State Dr. Park
Terms in this set (59)
Unit for Time
Unit for electric current
unit for frequency
Hertz (Hz) or s^-1
Unit for Energy or Work
joule(J) or N x m
Unit for power
watts (W) or J/s
Unit for Electric Charge
coulomb (C) or A x s
Unit for Electric Potential
volt (V) or J/C
Unit for Electric Resistance
Ohm or V/A
Unit for Electric conductance
Siemens (S) or A/V
Unit for Electric Capacitance
Farad (F) or C/V
Unit for Magnetic Flux
weber (Wb) or V x s
Unit for Inductance
Henry (H) or Wb/ A
Charge is bipolar, meaning that electrical effects are described in terms of _________ & ___________
positive and negative charges
The electric charge exists in discrete quantities, which are integral multiples
of the elementary charge
e = 1.6022 x 10^-19 C. (Electron = -e)
Electrical effects are attributed to both the ________________ & _____________________
separation of charge (electric
force: voltage) and charges in motion (electric fluid: current).
Electron (negative charge) flow direction is the ___________ of current
Whenever the reference direction for the current in an element is in the direction of
the reference voltage drop across the element, use a _________ sign in any expression
that relates the voltage to the current. Otherwise, use a ________ sign.
Power is being __________ by a circuit element when P = v*i is positive!
The practical capability of the system often is ____________ , and this output is
conveniently expressed in terms of power or energy.
Example: Lightbulb, motor, water pump, power supply etc.
If the power is __________ , power is being delivered to the circuit inside the box
(the box could be your smartphone consuming power).
If the power is ___________, power is being extracted from the circuit inside the
box (the box could be your laptop working as a power source for your
Power generated in a resistance is ______ __ _________
always a loss.
Power loss converts to ______ (ex. gaming laptops have huge fans and heat sinks for heat
Power loss is undesired except for _____________________
applications like heaters.
Regardless of voltage polarity and current direction, the power at the terminals of a
resistor is __________.
Kirchhoff's Current Law
The algebraic sum of all the currents at
any node in a circuit equals zero.
Kirchhoff's Voltage Law
The algebraic sum of all the voltages
around any closed path in a circuit
Voltage sources of distinct voltage output cannot be connected in _______
Current sources of distinct current output cannot be connected in _______
without an additional branch.
Purpose: to reduce voltage for measurement or a load that requires lower voltage.
more current flows through the smaller resistance
Measures current, connected in series
measures voltage, connected in parallel
Advantages of using the wheatstone bridge
Precisely measure resistances on the range of 1 ohm - 10 Mohm
Accuracies on the order of 0.1 %
a point where two or more circuit elements join
A node where three or more circuit elements join
a trace of adjoining basic elements with no elements included more than once
a path that connects to nodes
A path which connects two essential nodes without passing through an essential node.
a path whose last node is the same as the starting node
a loop that does not contain other loops
A circuit that can be drawn on a plane with no crossing branches.
What happens if there is a resistance in parallel with the voltage source or a
resistance in series with the current source?
Nothing changes from the Load's perspective!
Such simplification can be used during certain
parts of an analysis. At the end, everything
needs to be taken into consideration.
Thevenin Norton Equivalents
Simplified representation of a complex circuit.
Use when the internal circuit details are unknown / not of interest.
Basically it's modeling a black box.
A linear system obeys the principle of superposition, which states that whenever a linear
system is driven by more than one independent source, the total response is the sum of the individual responses.
- a passive element designed to store energy in its magnetic field.
- find numerous applications in electronic and power systems. They are used
in power supplies, transformers, radios, TVs, radars, electric motors, and more.
- a passive element designed to store energy in its electric field.
- used extensively in electronics, communications, computers, and
self- induced voltage
the product of the self inductance of the coil and the first
derivative of the current in that coil.
-a voltage drop in the direction of the current producing
the voltage based on the passive sign convention.
-But the polarity of the mutually induced voltage depends on the way the coils are
wound in relation to the reference direction of coil currents!
the product of the mutual inductance of the coils and
the first derivative of the current in the other coil.
-When the reference direction for a current enters the dotted terminal of a coil, the
reference polarity of the voltage that it induces in the other coil is positive at its
- When the reference direction for a current leaves the dotted terminal of a coil, the
reference polarity of the voltage that it induces in the other coil is negative at its
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