Terms in this set (209)
The factors that might affect observations and can be manipulated are called:
A control can be best defined as:
A variable that is kept constant in an experiment.
A marine biologist observes that mako sharks, sardines, and salmon leap out of the water. An example of induction from these observations is:
d. All fishes leap out of the water.
From the general statement "All fishes lay eggs," which of the following results from deduction:
Since tuna are fish, tuna lay eggs.
The scientific method can be best described as:
Procedures used to learn about our world.
An experiment can be best described as:
An artificially created situation to test a hypothesis.
A limiting factor of science is that it cannot:
Make judgments about ethics, values, and morality.
How much of the Earth's surface is covered by the world ocean
The shallow part of the continental margin that is closer to land and is a critical marine habitat because light can reach all the way to the bottom in most of it is known as:
Which of the following is not true of oceanic crust?
It consists mostly of granite
Trenches are formed in areas where:
A plate sinks beneath another
Lithogenous sediments are those that come from:
Erosion of land
Which of the following is not true of mid-ocean ridges?
The sediment covering gets thinner as one moves away from them towards the continents
The outer edge of the continental margin is the:
The semi-solid layer of the earth found below the crust and outside of the core is called the:
Oceanographers often use the name "Southern Ocean" to refer to the body of water:
The earth's magnetic field is thought to be caused by movements of liquid metal in which of the earth's layers?
The mass of a substance per unit volume
The friction zone along the shear boundary such as the one in California between two lithospheric plates is called a:
The world's smallest and shallowest ocean is:
The largest percentage of the world ocean is found in the:
Which of the following is true about lithospheric plates?
Float on the upper mantle
The most biologically rich part of the ocean is the:
The world's largest and deepest ocean is
Which ions comprise about 85% of the solutes in seawater?
Na and CL
Which of the following properties is unique to water due to it's molecular structure?
It is less dense as a solid than a liquid
The main thermocline is located at the zone:
Between the warm and cold layers
Which of the following is the state of water at a temperature of 4°C ?
Maximum density of water
Large circular systems of surface currents.
The highest part or top of a wave is called the
The rule of constant proportions expresses that:
The relative concentration of ions does not change.
The factor that most affects wind patterns in the atmosphere of the earth:
When water cools, but does not freeze, the molecules move ______________ and take up ______________ space.
Pressure increases with depth by adding one atmosphere of pressure for every:
10 meters of depth.
Hydrogen bonds in water molecules are formed between:
Hydrogen and oxygen atoms of adjacent molecules.
The Eckman spiral occurs as a result of
How does the oxygen content of the ocean compare to the air that humans breathe?
Lower oxygen content
The salinity of water is generally expressed in:
Parts per thousand.
The secchi disk is used to indirectly estimate:
How much light penetrates through the water column.
Which of the following are not correctly paired?
The term ecosystem best encompasses which one of the following
The community or communities and the physical environment
A group of organisms living together on a rocky beach is an example of a(an):
Typical marine fishes:
Tend to lose water by osmosis since their internal salt concentration is lower than that of seawater
Which of the following shows the correct order of taxonomic levels?
Kingdom, phylum, family, genus, species
Male gametes (sperm) and female gametes (eggs):
Fuse during fertilization to form a zygote
All of the following are examples of asexual reproduction except:
The term "endotherms" is applied to those organisms:
That retain some of its metabolic heat
Which of the following statements regarding bacteria is NOT true?
Bacteria are eukaryotic
Marine organisms whose internal salt concentration varies with that of their environment are examples of:
An algal bloom is defined as
Mass reproduction of algal cells
Archaea are classified as being:
Which of the following does not apply to protozoans?
Cyanobacteria are characterized by being:
Bioluminescence is observed in:
Organisms having a shell made of silica (SiO2)
Prokaryotes differ from eukaryotes in regards to:
all of the above
Dinoflagellates that live in association with reef-building corals and other animals are known as:
Red tides are caused mostly by:
Which of the following would be classified as autotrophic?
Which of the following are considered to be extremophiles due to the habitats they exist in?
Which of the following is not true of decay bacteria?
Carry out photosynthesis
Endophytes are primary producers that live:
Inside primary producers
Bacteria that make their own organic compounds by obtaining energy from chemical compounds and not directly from light are known as:
The Sargasso Sea is found in the:
Algaes are included among the Protista. Some biologists, however, place them instead in the:
Marine flowering plants can be best differentiated from macroalgaes/seaweeds by the fact that the marine flowering plants:
Reproduce by producing seeds
Macroalgaes can be best differentiated from the phytoplankton because the marcoalgaes:
Are mostly multicellular
Mangroves live in coastal waters that:
Are well protected from strong wave action
Macroalgae/ seaweeds can be best differentiated from true plants because macroalgae/ seaweeds:
Have no true roots, leaves, or stems
The group of macroalgaes/seaweeds with the largest number of species is the:
Marine vascular flowering plants include all of the following except:
The root-like, anchoring structure of many macroalgae/ seaweeds is called the
The most complex and largest of all the macroalgaes/seaweeds is included among one of these groups:
Coralline red algae receive this name due to their ability to:
Accumulate calcium carbonate
Salt-tolerant plants such as salt-marsh plants are called:
Algaes and many bacteria are primary producers. In contrast to the types of the bacteria that are primary producers, however, all types of algaes are:
An example of an anthozoan is
Which of the following type of cells and structures of sponges does not match the function?
Collar cells — calcareous structures for support
Most cnidarians are specialized as:
Which of the following is not an arthropod?
The term for changing exoskeletons by crustaceans is:
The larval stage of an animal is best defined as:
Early stage of development of an organism, typically part of the plankton
In a bilaterally symmetrical animal, which of the following is not correctly paired?
Ventral surface -brain
A nudibranch is a type of:
A polychaete worm is
Comb jellies are:
Distinguished by eight bands of cilia
Animals, all members of the kingdom Animalia, are characterized by all of the following except one:
Some are autotrophs
The radula and crystalline style of molluscs are part of their:
One distinctive feature of all echinoderms:
Water vascular system
A zoea would be a larval form of which of these organisms?
Deposit-feeding animals feed on:
Organic matter that settles on the bottom
Sponges and all filter feeders use the following as a food source
All particulate matter suspended in water
Free-floating cnidarians like jellyfish are referred to as having a ___________ type form.
Comb jellies are classified as:
One distinctive feature of arthropods
When a particular color pattern allows animals like fishes to blend with their surroundings it is referred to as:
One of the following is not a characteristic of all chordates:
The group of vertebrates containing the largest number of species is:
The counter-current system of flow is involved in:
Increasing the amount of oxygen that diffuses into the blood
The heart of all fishes has how many chambers?
The whale shark feeds on:
Fishes with a small mouth located at the end of a long, thin "bill" are more likely to feed on:
Very small animals
Anadromous fishes migrate:
From the sea to reproduce in freshwater
In many sharks, extra buoyancy is provided by the:
Which of these is an example of a jawless fish:
The caudal fin of sharks is located on:
at the tail end
Rays and skates typically feed on:
Small animals that live on the bottom
An example of a catadromous fish:
One particular feature found in bony fishes but is absent in cartilaginous fishes:
Live on the bottom
Which of the following structures do bony fish have that sharks and rays do not?
The purpose of the lateral line in fishes:
Open-water fish have light-colored bellies and dark-colored backs in order to blend into the pelegic environment. This is known as:
Ambergris, used in the manufacture of perfumes, comes from what part of whales?
Echolocation is present in:
All toothed whales
Convergent evolution means that:
Organisms possess similar structures because they have a similar lifestyle
Which of these is a toothed whale?
Temperature dependent sex determination is seen in:
Baleen whales lack
Breaching refers to whales
Jumping above the surface
An example of convergent evolution is:
Dolphins and fish
Porpoises can be distinguished from dolphins by comparing their:
The spermaceti organ in the head of sperm whales is thought to regulate buoyancy and:
Focus and direct sound waves
Baleen plates are:
Rigid and have small hairs on one side only
We can tell that cetaceans are mammals because they:
Have hair and produce milk
Echolocation is a sense that relies on:
An example of a whale known as a rorqual
A fundamental role of decomposers:
Releasing nutrients to be used by autotrophs
Predation can be best defined as:
An animal eating any other organism
All of the following are examples of abiotic factors except:
The term trophic refers to:
Which of the following is an example of intraspecific competition?
Two individuals in a population of clownfish attempt to use the same anemone as habitat
Zooxanthellae live within the tissues of corals and both organisms benefit from the association. This is known as:
The type of interaction that results when a resource is in short supply and one organism uses the resource at the expense of the other is called:
In the dark-light bottle experiment, one of the following is measured in the dark bottle:
The detritus in the water includes
Dead organic matter
Which of the following could be a tertiary consumer?
An example of a community is:
A kelp forest plus all organisms living in it
The following is a synonym of autotrophs:
The subtidal zone is the area:
Between the intertidal zone and the edge of the continental shelf
The difference between food webs and food chains is that food webs:
Are more complex
On the average, what percentage of energy in a particular trophic level is passed on to the next trophic level?
The level in a food web above the primary producers would be the:
The amount of chlorophyll in the water is a direct estimate of:
standing stock of phytoplankton
Vertical zonation on rocky shores is mostly the result of differences in tolerance to:
Fine sediments are characteristic of:
Calm, less exposed shores
The middle intertidal is characterized by:
Exposure and immersion on a regular basis
Which of these organisms inhabits the area at or above the high tide line on a sandy beach?
Intertidal organisms from exposed areas sometimes have thicker shells than their counterparts from less exposed areas. This is thought to be an adaptation to:
Most sessile animals living on rocky shores are:
Which of the following strategies is not used to avoid desiccation in the intertidal?
Crowding by organisms in areas that are always moist
In terms of oxygen, the interstitial water in muddy bottoms:
Is deficient in it
Which of the following would not be considered epifauna?
Organisms living in sand
The upper limit of rocky intertidal communities is typically determined by:
Mostly physical factors
The lower limit of the intertidal zone is the:
Lowest low tide
One organism typical of the upper intertidal on rocky shores
One of these organisms is typically a very rare component of soft-bottom intertidal communities:
Between grains of sediment
Most animals living on sandy beaches are included among the _________ due to wave action:
The sessile epifauna consists of:
The main source of food in muddy-bottom intertidal communities:
Primary production on soft-bottomed subtidal communities is highest in
The concentration of nutrients in the waters over the continental shelf is typically:
Higher than in the open ocean
One of the following will be relatively uncommon component of rocky subtidal communities due to the nature of the substrate:
Sea otters are known to affect the development of giant kelp forests by
Feeding on grazing sea urchins
The pattern of spatial distribution most often seen in soft-bottom subtidal communities
The higher the water turbulence such as wave action, the higher the relative number of:
Most of the sediment over the continental shelf consists of:
Typically, the dominant inhabitants of rocky subtidal bottoms in shallow water are:
The part of the continental shelf that is never exposed at low tide is called the:
Which of the following is a positive effect of bioturbators?
Deposit feeders would be most likely to be found on which substrate?
The plankton and nekton that inhabit the water column over the continental shelf are said to live in what zone?
The most important food source in unvegetated soft-bottom subtidal communities:
Most of the biomass produced by seagrasses find their way into the food chain by way of:
By definition, kelp forests develop when:
Kelp fronds extend far enough to float on the surface
Kelps are characteristic of
Reef-building corals grow only in shallow water because:
Zooxanthellae need light for photosynthesis
Eutrophication is very detrimental to the development of coral since it increases
The amount of nutrients in the water, hence providing the conditionsfor the overgrowth of algae
Spur-and-groove formations, or buttresses, appear to be the result of:
Wind and waves
Generally, an important distinction between barrier and fringing reefs is that barrier reefs
Develop farther away from land
The most common type of coral reefs around the world are:
Zooxanthellae are essential to reef-building corals because they:
Help in the deposition of the calcium-carbonate skeleton
Fringing and barrier reefs develop:
Along the coast
What area of a fringing coral reef is most likely to see more pronounced coral growth?
Planula is the name given to:
Reef-building corals are cnidarians that are characterized by:
Having only a polyp stage
Most atolls are found in the:
Indo-West Pacific region
Besides reef-building corals, the most important organisms that help form coral reefs are:
The expulsion of zooxanthellae due to unfavorable conditions is called:
Atolls actually start as a:
Bacteria thriving around deep-sea hydrothermal vents are:
The presence of bioluminescent organs on the underside of mid-water fishes is involved in:
An important feeding adaptation among deep-sea fishes:
Ability to eat prey bigger than themselves
The energy source for the bacteria that thrive around deep-sea hydrothermal vents is:
In addition to food, deep-water animals depend on the surface for`
The zone immediately below the bathypelagic zone is called the:
The deepest of ocean waters are classified as:
The deep-sea benthos consists mostly of:
The giant deep-sea hydrothermal vent tubeworm feeds on:
It filter-feeds on chemosynthetic bacteria
Trawls are nets that:
Dragged along the bottom or through the water column
An example of a marine non-renewable resource:
By definition, pelagic catches are those that are harvested from
The open water
The massive decline of a particular fishery in New England waters caused the unemployment of numerous fishers and related workers in the United States and Canada in the 1980's. To date, this fishery has not recovered. Which fishery is this?
The farming of salmon includes all the following problems except:
Making salmon more expensive
The richest fishing areas of the world are mostly located in waters:
Where coastal upwelling takes place
Most marine food resources are harvested from:
The continental shelf
Cods and related fishes are demersal. As a result, they are most likely to be caught commercially using which method?