Induction is the primary logical process used in science.
Observe repeated examples of a phenomena and generalize to the conclusion that...the same cause will always lead to the same effect.
Iron, copper, aluminum, alcohol, oil, and air all expand when heated; therefore...we reason all substances expand when heated
The more instances of the phenomena observed with the same result and no counter results...the greater our confidence in our generalization.
Note: Induction can lead to wrong conclusion: water between 0-4oC shrinks - thankfully.
Can you determine what will happen if I bounce the ball? Drop happy (elastic ball) several times from the same height. While repeating the bounce, ask students to predict what will happen next time, commenting that our confidence in predicting what will happen increases as more instances are observed. Then secretly switch balls. When you drop the sad (inelastic) ball, it will not drop. This makes the point that no matter how many instances of a phenomena you observe, you can never predict with complete confidence what will happen next time (can not prove it). However, it only takes one legitimate (and our demo was not legitimate) counterexample to disprove a hypothesis).
Induction is most abundant in science. It is a powerful way to discover patterns and relationships in the natural world. Yet, it can never prove anything, as one counterexample negates the generalization. This is the primary reason science is considered UNDER-DETERMINED.