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One who favors more limited and local government, less government regulation of markets, and more social conformity to traditional norms and values

crosscutting cleavages

Differences in political preferences based on more than one variable

Evangelical Christians

People who say that they have been "born again" and who see certain moral questions as political issues

gender gap

Differences in political views between men and women


One who favors more government regulation of business and support for social welfare but less regulation of private social conduct


One who is conservative on economic issues, liberal on personal conduct issues

middle America

Americans who have moved out of poverty but are not yet affluent and who cherish middle-class values

new class

Middle-income people who live in cities, skip church, and have mostly liberal political views


A standard of right or proper conduct that helps determine the range of acceptable social behavior and policy options

party identification

The political party for which one or one's family usually votes

political elites

People who have a disproportionate amount of political power

political ideology

A coherent and consistent set of beliefs about who ought to rule, what principles rulers should obey, and what policies they ought to pursue


A survey of public opinion


One who is liberal on economic issues, conservative on personal conduct issues

pure conservative

One who is conservative on both economic and personal conduct issues

pure liberal

One who is liberal on both economic and personal conduct issues

random sample

A sample selected in such a way that any member of the population being surveyed has an equal chance of being interviewed

religious tradition

The moral teachings of religious institutions on religious, social, and economic issues

sampling error

The difference between the results of two surveys or samples

silent majority

A phrase used to describe people, whatever their economic status, who uphold traditional values, especially against the counterculture of the 1960s

social status

A measure of one's social standing obtained by combining such factors as education, income, and occupation

traditional middle class

Middle-income people who usually live in suburbs, attend church, favor business, and have mostly conservative political views


Young urban professionals

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