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Race and Ethnic Politics
Terms in this set (152)
a group that is set apart by physical manifestations such as skin color, hair texture and facial features
Examples of racial groups
Whites, Blacks, Asians
A group that is set apart by their cultural background
Examples of ethnic groups
Top-down approach to assigning race
someone else defines who you are (usually federal government); defines or categorizes the minority group & who belongs
Bottom-up approach to assigning race
group develops a sense of "we-ness" or "peoplehood" and defines what characteristics they share
Who defines and assigns race in the US?
Today, what is the largest growing racial group in the US?
Is there inequality in the US? And if so, how do we know?
Yes, by looking at:
-health disparities: obesity, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, etc.
What are the three major minority groups?
Blacks, Latinos, and Asian Americans
Geographically, where have blacks been mainly concentrated?
Geographically, where have Latinos been mainly concentrated?
West Coast, South, Northeast
Geographically, where have Asian Americans been mainly concentrated?
West Coast, Northeast
Geographically, where have whites been mainly concentrated?
What historical experiences have shaped the black experience?
Civil Rights Movement
Which subgroups comprise the black racial group?
Group consists primarily of African Americans but also Caribbean and European Americans that are black
Politically, blacks tend toward which political party?
but black engagement has decreased since the Civil Rights Movement
What historical experiences have shaped the Latino experience?
Which subgroups comprise the Latino ethnic group?
Group consists primarily of Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, and Cubans
Politically, Latinos tend toward which political party?
Latinos tend towards Democratic Party overall BUT Cuban Americans tend towards the Republican Party
Political participation is low, even more so than Blacks & Whites
What historical experiences have shaped the Asian American experience?
Minor Anti-Asian movement
Which subgroups comprise the Asian American racial group?
overgeneralizes Asian Americans
used as justification for "nonexistence of inequality"
pits different minority groups against each other
Politically, Asian Americans tend toward which political party?
Asians have become more Republican with increased exposure to American politics (esp. Chinese, Koreans and Southeast Asians)
Lowest levels of engagement
What established racial and ethnic inequality in the US?
Initially, what groups did whites use for labor needs?
Whites used Indians & White Europeans or indentured servants and slaves for all labor needs
As labor needs increased, why were Africans seen as the ideal solution to the labor shortage?
Didn't know the US terrain
Easily identified as "outsiders"
Immunity to malaria and yellow fever
Skilled at taking care of tropical crops
Endless supply of Blacks through the Middle Passage
Perceived as heathens and could be chastised with more force
How did the colonies preserve a system of racial oppression?
Louisiana and North Carolina: 1/16th Rule
Florida, Indiana, Maryland, Missouri, Michigan, Nebraska, ND, SC, Tennessee: 1/8th Rule
Oregon: 1/4th Rule
children of mixed parentage are believed to inherit the less prestigious racial category
motivation of the "one drop rule"- more people characterized as black--> more people characterized as property/slaves
narrower rule. must reach a particular level to count as Native American
motivation- less claims to aid/land for Native Americans
What is the significance of Loving vs. Virginia (1967)?
overturned ban on interracial marriage
How was race the driving force of slavery?
Africans seen as having an inferior culture
Use of "master" reinforced this idea
Christianity was enforced
Works off servitude but still could not integrate into society
Slaves considered property ("slavery" as an economic issue)
To be bought, punished, sold and loaned
majority of Africans. Tended to field and did brunt work. Typically darker Africans
small selected number. Eyes and ears of the slave master. Typically light-skinned. Light skin usually came from White American fathers
Field Negros would use scraps from the smokehouse like _____________________ to make meals
What foods from Africa would slaves use?
Yam & sweet potatoes
Okra & greens
Also use of lard
Christianity equipped Africans with some tools they needed to move towards freedom. What were they?
Singing as solidarity
Singing as motivation and inspiration
Singing as an expression of protest
Singing as a coded message
Boston Tea Party
push back from fire brand patriots. Staged a raid. Hurled crates of tea into the harbor. 200 participants. Solidarity maintained by colonists tarring and feathering
In 1775, both slaves and free blacks were serving in the Continental Army (roughly 5,000 blacks). What was Alexander Hamilton and George Washington's plan to enlist blacks to fight?
If Continental Congress approved, those who served would be granted freedom
What accusations did Thomas Jefferson (the colonists) make against the crown?
Blocked passage of laws
Abused and abolished colonial legislatures
Blocked legislatures' elections
Imposed big government
Cut off trade with the rest of the world
Imposed taxes without colonists' consent
Denied trial by jury
Waged war by means of colonies
Refused to answer colonists' questions
Why did TJ believe that the colonies' grievances and petition should be honored?
Inalienable rights (given by The Creator himself)
How did Thomas Jefferson shift the blame of slavery onto the crown?
British offered slaves the opportunity to fight with them to earn freedom
Americans attempted altruism- colonies put forth legislation to abolish slavery and British crown denied policies
What were some of the signs of freedom?
1774- Rhode Island stated any imported slaves should be freed
1778- Delaware and Virginia prohibited the slave trade
By 1780s- Pennsylvania, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Connecticut passed legislation for the gradual emancipation of slaves
1780- Massachusetts legislature declared slavery unconstitutional
What was the approach of slavery in and after 1787?
In 1787, the importation of slaves was drastically limited in every state except Georgia. The colonists' were unable to import new slaves but did not have to give up any slaves currently in their possession.
After 1787, the approach to slavery was more philosophical.
refers to a particular body of White European political thought that sought to justify the liberation of the individual from a feudal state and to deride those who benefitted from them
What are the basic tenets of classic liberalism?
equality under the law
What were the concerns revolving around slavery in the North vs the South?
In the South, there were more slaves. There were considered about preserving slavery for the purpose of a labor force, and they would not ratify a Constitution that threatened slavery.
In the North, there were fewer slaves, so they were more concerned about a rebellion, which could potentially require aid from a foreign country.
How was inequality incorporated into the foundations of the nation (the Constitution)?
Article I Section III: all "other persons" counted as 3/5ths of a person when determining a state's population
Article I Section IX: Congress cannot prohibit the importation of such persons prior to 1808
Article IV Section II: Persons who escape to states where slavery is illegal must return to owners
individuals' preferential treatment to people of the same color
Kenneth B. Clark & Mamie Phipps Clark Doll Experiment
Black children in both segregated and integrated communities preferred the white doll
Modern application: Light skinned political candidates are viewed more favorably than dark skinned candidates (Barack Obama)
In 1860, the greatest population of blacks was in the South. What is the effect on white attitudes in those Southern counties today?
Today, whites who currently live in Southern counties (w. High shares of slaves in 1860) are more likely to identify as a Republican, oppose affirmative action and express racial resentment and colder feelings towards blacks
Which abilities does citizenship grant you?
Be a member of the two main political parties
Be a congressional member, governor or president
Did the founders reserve citizenship for whites?
Founders commissioned to create a national seal that would be representative of countries where colonists in the new nations were from
2 of 6 Indian tribes (esp. Oneidas) fought with colonists but only viewed as allies not as citizens
"One people" in the Constitution→ just Whites? Seem so.
According to the Constitution, which level of government deals with suffrage?
Naturalization Act of 1790
granted citizenship to free white aliens who had lived in the US and shown good behavior for 2 years, expressed intention of remaining in the US and who took an oath of allegiance
Other notes related to naturalization:
15 different naturalization acts were passed between 1790 and 1854
All included language like "free white person"
Indians and slaves were "not freemen," "not fitted to be members of the political party"
11 free and 11 slave states prior to the compromise
So Missouri entered the Union as a slave state and Maine as a free state
All property north of Louisiana Purchase would be free territory and everything south permitted slavery
Dred Scott vs. Sandford
Dred Scott was born in a slave state, Missouri
Taken to free state of Illinois
After slave owner died his property passed on to his widow so she wanted Scott back in Missouri
Supreme Court declared Missouri Compromise unconstitutional→ violates the 5th Amendment which prohibits Congress from depriving persons of their property without due process of law
Property rights wins out against human rights
What is the timeline of citizenship for blacks?
1857- Dred Scott, slaves and descendants could never be citizens
1863- Emancipation Proclamation
1864- 13th Amendment: abolish slavery
1866- Civil Rights Acts and 14th Amendment
1868- 14th Amendment ratified: grant citizenship
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (What was Mexicans' path to citizenship?)
ended Mexican American War in 1848
US obtained parts of AZ, NM, CA, CO, TX, NV, UT, KS, OK and WY
Mexicans living in these areas were promised citizenship
Property rights were never honored
Black Mexicans complicated act of extending citizenship
Race is tainting ethnic identities. The explicit beginnings of race and ethnicity sharing a similar fate
Jones Act (1917) (What was Puerto Ricans path to citizenship?)
When the US annexed in 1899, Puerto Ricans were not considered citizens. The act granted citizenship to Puerto Ricans with stipulations.
What was Cubans path to citizenship?
The majority of Cubans came after 1959
Up until 1980, 96% of Cubans were considered white under naturalization acts and thus could receive citizenship
What was the path of citizenship in for Asian Americans?
1848- Asian Americans, especially Chinese and Japanese, imported in as cheap labor for gold mining in CA and expanding the railroad
1852- CA legislature passed a foreign miners tax on Chinese miners if they did not become citizens
Because of 1790 Naturalization Act, government officials decided if a Chinese miner was white enough for citizenship on a case by case basis
refers to a Western fear that Asians, especially Chinese, would invade Western lands and corrupt their values of democracy
Rutherford B. Hayes- "present Chinese invasion...should be discouraged."
Duke example- not speaking Chinese in classrooms
Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882
no court in the US shall admit Chinese to citizenship
What are the limitations of the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863?
Freedom was only given to slave states under Confederate control
Slaves under Union control were not free
Natural rights- inherit in one's humanity
Civil rights- equality of treatment under the law
Political rights- voting and political engagement
Social rights- freedom to choose personal and business associates
Freedom as autonomy- self determination, pride, self respect
Collective deliverance- liberation of group from external control
Psyche of slavery
continued past 1865
Lack of education
Limited skill sets
"The Slave Mentality"
WEB Du Bois's idea of "two-ness" and "eternal conflict" of being an American and Negro
What are three approaches to black progress?
1. Booker T. Washington's passive approach
2. WEB Du Bois's Talented Tenth
3. Henry Turner and Marcus Garvey's black nationalism
How would you describe Booker T. Washington's approach?
Modest agenda constructed on central promise that black sociopolitical progress first required economic advancement
Industrial education and manual labor
Passive, conformist approach to civil and political rights to reap long term advancements
Atlanta Compromise Speech (What were the main ideas expressed in the speech?
Blacks would receive education and training
Blacks could receive funding from the North
Discrimination and inequality could continue and be accepted
Vocational education would lead to economic security that is more valuable than social advancements, higher education and political rights
Construction and agriculture
How would you describe WEB Du Bois's approach?
Opposed Booker T Washington
Instructed urgency not patience
immediate and substantial advances for Afrcan Americans political and economic situation
NAACP founded in 1910
Received his PhD from Harvard in History in 1895
Published The Philadelphia Negro: A Social Study
Blacks were not innately inferior because economic and social progress had been made
"developing best of the race that may guide the Mass away from the contamination and death of the Worst"
Starts with training and educating "the best" to pass down knowledge to the rest and instruct others on how to succeed
Race will be saved by the "exceptional"
How would you describe Henry Turner and Marcus Garvey's approach?
Encouraged constitution of a separate black nation, either in the US or through mass emigration to Africa
What are some examples of this?
Black Wall Street (Tulsa 1921)
Greenwood- segregated but thrived. Black lawyers, business owners, doctors, etc.
Dollar circulated 36 to 100 times a year, sometimes taking a year for currency to leave the community
NOW it takes 15 MINUTES to leave the Black community
Greenwood was burnt down by white nationalists
African Americans believe that what happens to one individual in their group can happen to them
African Americans new life circumstances through other African American community member→ propels them to action
idea that due to historical and current experience of group discrimination, one's fate is strongly linked or dependent on status and fortunes of Black Americans in general
Which school of thought was most widely accepted by whites?
Booker T. Washington's passive approach
Washington became the White House's preferred channel for dealing with question of race in America especially for Teddy Roosevelt
Many black elites held heir fire for fear of ostracism
Wealthy individuals such as Rockefeller and Carnegie donated money to fund Tuskegee Institute
Repatriation of Mexicans
Illegal and unconstitutional raids and deportations of ~1.8 million Mexicans & Mexican-American citizens (65% were citizens)
Federal government argues many were "voluntary" deportations
1910-1960, Blacks were leaving the South
In North, Black population increased ~600%
In South, Black population increased 29%
Migration largely felt in the South states that had a very small %
From 1896-1930, blacks voted predominantly for which party?
Blacks voted Republican because it was the party of Lincoln but Democrats controlled the South
Up until 1936, blacks overwhelmingly vote Republican for 17 elections
In 1936, blacks overwhelmingly voted FDR (Democrat). How did FDR capture this vote?
The New Deal
1940- FDR's "Black Cabinet" or "Black Brain Trust" more than 100 black policy makers in the administration
FDR didn't talk about race but "forgotten man" or "underprivileged"
FDR met with African American groups, took picture with blacks and invited them White House events
Eleanor Roosevelt- oftentimes acted outside of husband's knowledge to be a major crusader for economic and social justice as it related to minorities
Worked mainly with NAACP's Walter White. Brought the NAACP to the forefront
Some say these were just symbolic gestures not growing commitment to civil rights
The New Deal (1933)
A series of legislative acts, executive orders, and presidential proclamations that sought to secure individual security but also remedy broader economic problems
New Deal also looked to help unemployed and the poor, who were disproportionately minorities
What movement did A. Philip Randolph and Bayard Rustin lead in end of 1930s?
Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters Union and political activist and organizer for the Young Communist League.
Organized 10,000 African Americans to March on Washington to protest racial discrimination in war and military.
Political activism to push the government in the right direction
What was the response of the March on Washington (Sleeping Car Porters Union)?
Executive Order 8802- no discrimination in employment of workers because of race
Fair Employment Practices Commission- investigate discrimination complaints in wartime
How did government officials continue to lure minorities to the Democratic Party?
1946- Harry Truman Executive Order 9008 established President's Committee on Civil Rights
1948- Truman ran on a civil rights platform that would be considered radical for the time
Defeated Storm Thurmond's States' Rights Party candidacy (racist guy)
Why did Truman run with a civil rights platform and win?
Migration more intense: over 1 million southern blacks moved to places like Chicago & Detroit between 1941 and 1946
Political motivation: Black vote could shift close calls
Violence against African American veterans following WWII
Race-based violence evoked images of the Holocaust
What were some of policies passed during the time of the New Deal?
Protective labor laws
How did the New Deal advantage whites?
Federal government transferred money to whites
Social Security paid old age pensions
Labor laws promoted union rights
How were minorities denied the benefits of the New Deal policies?
Blacks excluded from Social Security into 1950s
Labor laws did not apply to jobs blacks worked
GI Bill denied to black veterans through racism
65% African Americans were denied access to Social Security benefits, government grants, elderly poor assistance and unemployment insurance
Southern local politicians administered aid from New Deal with major bias against blacks
What was the effect of the New Deal?
New Deal exacerbated racial inequality in America
30s-40s white had 3x more
50s-60s white had 11x more
refers to an ideology that considers the unchangeable characteristics of a group to be linked in a direct, causal way, to their psychological and intellectual functioning, and on that basis, distinguishes between superior and inferior races
social norms and values in various sectors of society that reflect the racism of the majority in the nation so that racial stratification occurs- the system of distributing social rewards, intentional or unintentional, on the basis of racial discrimination and racial bias. Less overt and committed by the community
Jim Crow laws
set of laws that segregated groups of society based upon their race or ethnicity
Put in place to provide a society that was "separate but equal"
How do you calculate statistical significance?
Statistical significance = coefficient estimate/standard error
How do you interpret the coefficient estimate?
A one unit increase in (the independent variable) leads to a (coefficient estimate) increase in (the dependent variable)
Civil Rights Movement
a struggle for social justice in the 1950s and 60s for blacks to acquire equal rights under the law in the US
Often involved political activities like rallies, marches, demonstrations, sit-ins, riots, etc.
Soft time period: 1955-1968
an ideology that considers the unchangeable physical characteristics of a group to be linked in a direct, causal way, to their psychological and intellectual functioning, and on that basis, distinguishes between superior and inferior races. Overt acts by individuals can be observed
Brown vs BOE I (1954)
Separate but equal is unconstitutional
Led to integration of schools
Brown vs BOE II (1955)
Integration had to take place "with all deliberate speed"
Led to schools forced to being integrated immediately
Little Rock Nine
Little Rock testing educational equality (1950s)
Governor Orval Faubus and white activists vs. President Eisenhower and federal troops
What philosophy drove the Civil Rights Movement?
MLK's philosophy of nonviolence and civil disobedience
JFK was president in 1961
Organized by the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE)
Put into place to challenge the implementation of Boynton vs VA decision, which stated that racial segregation in public transportation was illegal
Reverend John Lewis participated and suffered brain fractures from being beaten
Rides included both blacks and whites
Voter Education Project (VEP)
Robert F. Kennedy, Attorney General while his brother, JFK, served in office, wanted to push the movement towards a less contentious nature (altruistic and selfish reasons)
created a project that gives finances to civil organizations to increase the black vote in the South
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee ("snik") led the project
However did not prevent contentious behavior
MLK: "the key to everything is federal commitment which could be wrought by precipitating a crisis situation"
Desegregation campaign was launched with a series of mass meetings, direct actions, lunch counter sit-ins, marches on City Hall, and a boycott of downtown merchants. Kneel-ins at churches, sit-ins at the library, and a march on the county building to register voters. Hundred were arrested.
April 10th- city government obtained a state circuit court injunction against the protests
What was MLK's philosophy regarding the law?
not breaking the law, just not following something unjust
How did MLK use civil disobedience to provoke the Commissioner of Public Safety, Eugene "Bull" Connor?
1000 school children stayed home from school & volunteered & protested
What was Bull Connor's response to the children's protest?
Connor instructed police force to send dogs after children, spray with water hose
Images televised around the world
March on Washington (1963)
Event brought thousands of individuals to D.C. to protest for better jobs and freedom
"I Have a Dream"
As president, what was JFK's response to the March on Washington?
FK delivered a national broadcast TV address in which he announced plans for a legislative initiative to eradicate segregation
which would eventually be the Civil Rights Act of 1964
November 22nd, 1963- JFK assassination
LBJ put forth Civil Rights Act of 1964
JFK was assassinated on November 22nd, 1963, before the Civil Rights Act could be enacted. How did it eventual come to be?
LBJ leveraged JFK's death to put forth the Civil Rights Act of 1964
Who led the the charge for political rights of Latinos in America?
Mendez vs. Westminster (1947)
before Brown vs. BOE
1940s- Mexican Americans considered "white" by CA law BUT racial segregation in schools
Case prohibited segregation of Lation children from white children (Father was able to go to the same exact school that his daughter wasn't allowed into)
Terrible conditions at Mexican American school- Mendez spoke of an electric fence, shacks, hand me down books, among other things
Judge ruled in favor of Mendez
Thurgood Marshall was one of the lawyers on this case
Thoughts would later be used in Brown vs. BOE
Hernandez vs. Texas (1954)
Mexican Americans civil rights Supreme Court case that ruled the 14th Amendment guaranteed equal protection to all racial groups, not just blacks and whites
one that seeks to achieve fundamental universal freedom in terms of basic human, constitutional and legal rights
one that seeks access to economic benefits such as land, employment and education
What were the two goals of the Chicano movement?
cultural regeneration and political power
What were the societal conditions leading up to the Chicano movement?
Increased population due to high fertility rates and immigration
Mexican American women entered labor force
Increase in income and home ownership
Higher levels of education
Who were the three main leaders of the Chicano movement?
Tijerina- confrontational and contentious
Gonzales- political and identity formation
Chavez and Huerta- nonviolent and passive
What group did Tijerina start, and what was their purpose?
Started the Federal Alliance of Land Grants
Organization looked to reclaim lands that were guaranteed to Mexican Americans through the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Tijerina tried to take these case claims to court, but the accusations were thrown out. What was his approach after this, and what was the ultimate effect?
After protestors met with the New Mexico Governor, David Cargo, violence broke out, shootings, hostages taken.
Tijerina later led a raid on the Tierra Amarilla County Courthouse
Allowed the issue to receive national attention in 1967
Why were many Chicanos against the Vietnam War?
Disproportionate number of war casualties came from the working class→ racial issue
Minorities carrying the burden of the war
What was the effect of Chicanos opposing the Vietnam War?
MLK and Corky Gonzales were both against Vietnam War
United blacks & Hispanics
What group did Gonzales start?
Founder of the Crusade for Justice (CFJ) group in 1966 in Denver
What is the significance of Gonzales' poem Yo Soy Joaquin?
often seen as giving the word Chicano meaning
What role did Gonzales play in the Civil Rights Movement?
he was instrumental in organizing individuals in the southwest in Poor People's Movement
Chavez and Huerta represented the interests of what group?
Farm workers and labor union rights
What group did Chavez and Huerta start?
1962 - founded the National Farm Workers Association (NFWA)
1200 member families, joined an American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-CIO) sponsored union in a strike against major Delano area table and wine grape growers
Chavez and Huerta led______. What were the outcomes of this _____?
a successful five-year strike-boycott that rallied millions of supporters to the United Farm Workers (UFW)
By 1970, boycott convinced most table grape growers to sign contracts with the UFW but there were things missing on the contract
Another grape boycott took place in 1975 and 17 million Americans joined in
California Agricultural Labor Relations Act of 1975
What was the downfall of the farm workers' union?
decline of the Civil Rights Movement
Undocumented workers brought unwelcomed competition, and these individuals deviate from the movement and splinter the lines
La Raza Unida
Party put forth various concerns that the Latino Community wanted to voice
Looked to promote the concerns of Mexican Americans through political means
Origins came from multiple places, but creation actually came from Lyndon B Johnson
He wanted to meet with various important individuals
Met with Corky and Tijerina
Was not that passive
Laguna Park protest
1970: 30,000 individuals gather at Laguna Park to disproportionate loss of young Latino lives in the Vietnam war, resulting in the death of an LA Times reporter, Ruben Salazar
By 1960, La Raza Unida was largely dominated by students. Which groups/figures inspired them?
Why did many Asians immigrate to the US in the 1700s and 1800s?
Entrepreneurial mentality- come to America to make money to send back home to their families
Wanted to make their lives better
What is the significance of the bombing of Pearl Harbor in relation to the Asian American experience?
Bombing of Pearl Harbor led to some pushback on the Japanese living in the U.S.
Internment Camps of 1942
Japanese Interment Camps of 1942
Anyone of Japanese ancestry was imprisoned
The Census helped but it was also based on appearance
As a result of this, people in other Asian-American subgroups distanced themselves from Japanese Americans, and this led to a split of the Asian-American group in the 1940s
Naturalization Act of 1870
barred Chinese from becoming citizens
Fong Yue Ting v. U.S (1893)
Supreme Court ruled that Congress has the power to expel the Chinese
What led to the creations of Chinatowns?
Housing segregation in SF in 1870s, in particular, forced Chinese populations to consolidate their power and maintain their culture
What is the first and oldest Chinatown in the US?
What were the major issues in the Asian American community?
Claims of rights and privileges of citizenship
Better wages and working conditions
Recognition of culture
Grievances came from multiple groups that included Chinese, Japanese, Filipino, Korean, and Indians
What were the major goals of the Asian American movement?
identity formation (Pan-Asian identity)
community building (beyond Chinatown and ethnic enclaves)
What were some of the major accomplishments of the Asian American movement?
Forged a coalitional politics that united Asians of varying ethnicities and declared solidarity with other Third World people in the United States and world
On top of identity politics, the AA movement was about assembling the least well-off segments of the pan-Asian community, in solidarity with other oppressed peoples
What were the major influences of the Asian American movement?
the black liberation movement and the national liberation struggles
specifically the Black Panther Party
How did the Black Panther Party influence the Asian American movement?
Asian American movement leaders looking to embrace positive things from the Black Panther Movement, like their involvement in communities, taking care of community members, feeding them, educating them
What was Alex Hing's perspective on the relationship between blacks and Asian Americans?
believed similarities between the two groups from experiencing racism and exploitation in the US
argued that the Panthers example of directly providing social services provided a viable model for Chinatown
What was Kazu Iijima and Minn Masuda's perspective on the influence of the Black Panthers?
believed that Black Panthers advocated for racial pride
They saw Black Power as an antidote to the pro-assimilationist fever that had struck many Japanese Americans after their experiences in concentration camps during WW2. They wanted to convey this sense of pride to the next generation in their own community
Who coined the term Asian American?
Yuji Ichioka coined the term Asian American when he co-founded the Asian American Political Alliance (AAPA) as an explicitly pan-Asian organization in 1968
How did the Asian American movement differ from other movements?
No economic resources coming from government
Lacked strong community institutional support (many buddhist churches with conservative views on activism)
In other groups, ministers and churches were a huge part
Baptist church in CRM
Ministers (Tijerina) in Chicano movement
While the increase of foreigners hurt the other movements, it potentially helped the Asian American Movement
Student organizations were the driving force
The streams of activists:
Students with institutional resources from college campuses
Progressive community and labor activists (communist ties)
California is hub for AA movement
Tied to their history of migrating to the west coast, similar to blacks in the south (slavery) and hispanics on the southwest (proximity to mex)
Asian Americans demanded relevant course material that discussed their history
Movement also challenged traditional stereotypes of Asian women as quiet and submissive
Addressing local harassment and brutality of local law enforcement on the west coast
Unionization and labor rights on the job
Bay Area Asian Coalition Against the War (BAACAW)
Founded to build an Asian presence in the large anti-war movement in the Bay Area in 1972
Were able to take the broad issues involved in the war
SF State College Student Strike
lasted 5 months
Community support was important
Many ethnic studies programs today stem from this strike pushing for it
Many Asian American organizations also focused on the injustices experienced by Japanese Americans who were placed in internment camps. What were the results of their efforts?
Japanese Americans citizen league was successful in getting Congress to establish a committee that would review this grievance
1983, the Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians (CWRIC) concluded that there was a great injustice
1988, Reagan put the Civil Liberties Act of 1988 into law
Law recognized that the US had made a mistake and apologized for its actions and made restitution of 20,000 dollars to each surviving former internee
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