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7th Grade American Century Exam Keywords

A complete overview of chapter 10,11,12,13 keywords and topics.
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Militarism
The belief that a nation needs a large military force. DO YOU NEED EXTRA HELP? Go to: http://historyexamstudy.wikispaces.micds.org
Imperialism
The act of competing with other countries for colonies
Nationalism
Strong feelings of pride and protectiveness towards one's country
Central Powers
Enemies of the allies, made of Austria-Hungary, Germany, the Ottoman empire (Turkey) and Bulgaria
Allies (WWI)
Enemies of the Central Powers made of Serbia, Russia. France, Great Britain, Italy and other countries
trench warfare
A form of battling that involves fighting from inside trenches using machine guns and tanks, and poison gas.
U-boat
The first form of submarines, created by the Germans
Woodrow Wilson
President of the united states in 1914. Kept America neutral until the arrival of the Zimmermann telegram.
neutrality
non-participation in a dispute or war
Zimmermann telegram
A telegram sent to Mexico by Germany offering return of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona to Mexico if Mexico assisted in the war against the USA
Vladimir Lenin
Founder of the communistic group in Russia. Last Russian ruler before Stalin and the communist take over.
communism
a form of socialism that abolishes private ownership
John Pershing
General in the AEF, 2 million soldiers went to France
AEF
American Expeditionary Force was the first American ground troops to reach the European front. Commanded by Pershing, they began arriving in France in the summer of 1917.
convoy system
the protection of merchant ships from U-boat-German submarine-attacks by having the ships travel in large groups escorted by warships
Second Battle of the Marne
The first battle that the US participated in overseas. They stopped Germany from taking France, turning point of World War One
Alvin York
War hero who single handedly killed 25 men and help captive 132 Germans
Armistice
an temporary agreement to stop fighting
war bonds
Loan like bonds sold by the government to first raise money for World War One
propaganda
Information that is spread for the purpose of promoting the war effort. Ex. Propaganda posters
Espionage Act
An act passed by congress in 1917 making it illegal to criticize the war.
Sedition Act
An act passed by congress in 1918 making it illegal to not enter the draft with out an excuse and illegal to criticize the war.
Oliver Holmes
Man who wrote the courts opinion in the Schenck vs. United States case. Schenck was accused of violating the Espionage and Sedition acts.
Great Migration
movement of over 300,000 African American from the rural south into Northern cities between 1914 and 1920 to escape racsim in the south and work in soldiers jobs
League of Nations
A group like the U.N, settles international conflicts through debates
Fourteen Points
When Wilson addressed congress about secret treaties and freedom of the seas.
Treaty of Versailles
Created by the leaders victorious allies Nations: France, Britain, US, and signed by Germany to help stop WWI. The treaty stripped Germany of all its military. Forced Germany to repair war damages and acknowledge guilt for causing WWI. This also stopped the manufacture of weapons in Germany.
reparations
Money that a defeated nation must pay for destruction cause by war.
Red Scare
Fear of a communistic revolution in America
Reds
Communists
Anarchists
Radicals opposing any form of government
Palmer raids
An event in which 6000 people were arrested and their homes were searched without warrant. This was a precautionary of the Red Scare.
Warren Harding
President after WWI. Wanted "less government in business and more business in government." Did not approve of government regulations
Teapot Dome Scandal
a government scandal involving a former United States Navy oil reserve in Wyoming that was secretly leased to a private oil company in 1921
laissez faire
policy based on the idea that government should play as small a role as possible in the economy
Calvin Coolidge
Became president when Harding died. Tried to clean up scandals by Harding. Business prospered and people's wealth increased. 1923-1929
isolationist
People who wanted the United States to stay out of world affairs, except for self-defense. Both Harding and Coolidge believed in this.
Kellogg-Briand Pact
agreement signed in 1928 in which nations agreed not to pose the threat of war against one another except for self-defense
assembly line
Created by Ford Co., increased production rate.
installment buying
A consumers buys products by promising to pay small, regular amounts over a period of time. Like a credit card, except unregulated.
flapper
young woman in the 1920s who rebelled against traditional ways of thinking and acting
Prohibition
the law that said alcoholic beverages could not legally be manufactured, transported, or sold in the U.S.
Al Capone
A mob king in Chicago who controlled a large network of speakeasies with enormous profits. His illegal activities convey the failure of prohibition in the twenties and the problems with gangs.
NAACP
The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People tried to protect the constitutional right of African Americans. An act that wasn't passed by congress.
Marcus Gravey
Found of the Universal Negro Improvement Association. Wanted Africans to return to Africa for a new nation.
fundamentalism
Literal interpretation and strict adherence to basic principles of a religion.
Ku Klux Klan
Known as the KKK. Used violence against certain groups in America. Founded in the 1860s in the south; meant to control Catholics, Jews, immigrants and others thought to be un-American through threats and violence.
jazz
Form of music and dance became popular in the 20s. Originated in Louisiana.
mass media
forms of communication, such as newspapers and radio, that reach millions of people
Popular culture
Culture found in a large, heterogeneous society that shares certain habits despite differences in other personal characteristics. AKA pop culture.
Harlem Renaissance
The artistic rebirth of African-American hope, A period in the 1920s when African-American achievements in art and music and literature flourished
Lost Generation
Group of writers in 1920s who shared the belief that they were lost in a greedy, materialistic world that lacked moral values and often choose to flee to Europe
expatriates
People who choose to live in another country beside their own
Herbert Hoover
President of the U.S from 1923-1933 leader of the US in the beginning of the great depression. He didn't want the government involved in the peoples lives and thought that the people should express their individual rights.
speculation
Buying and selling stocks in hope of making a quick profit
buying on margin
Paying a down payment on stock and borrowed the rest. When they sold the stock they payed off the loan and kept the rest of the money.
Black Tuesday
October 29, 1929; the day the stock market crashed. Lead to the Crash of 1929
Crash of 1929
October 29; fell 23% over black Monday and Tuesday; borrowed funds to buy stocks was the cause of the crash- potential to borrow 78% of the price; took 25 years to recover.
Great Depression
the economic crisis and period of low business activity in the U.S. and other countries, roughly beginning with the stock-market crash in October, 1929, and continuing through most of the 1930s.
public works projects
publicly used facilities, such as schools and highways, built by federal, state, or local governments with public money
Bonus Army
Group of WWI vets. that marched to D.C. in 1932 to demand the immediate payment of their government war bonuses in cash
Franklin Roosevelt
The 32nd president of the United States. He was president from 1933 until his death in 1945 during both the Great Depression and World War II. He is the only president to have been elected 4 times. Led America out of the Great Depression.
fireside chat
A address to the public by Roosevelt.
Hundred Days
The famous congress session that passed laws supporting relief, recovery, and reform during 100 days.
Social Security Act
guaranteed retirement payments for enrolled workers beginning at age 65; set up federal-state system of unemployment insurance and care for dependent mothers and children, the handicapped, and public health.
New Deal
A serise of programs that helped support the three rs in the Hundred Days.
Second New Deal
A new set of programs and reforms launched by FDR in 1935
deficit spending
Government practice of spending more than it takes in from taxes.
Dust Bowl
Region of the Great Plains that experienced a drought in 1930 lasting for a decade, leaving many farmers without work or substantial wages.
Eleanor Roosevelt
Wife of Franklin Roosevelt and a strong advocate of human rights (1884-1962)
CIO
a federation of North American industrial unions that merged with the American Federation of Labor in 1955
sit-down strike
Work stoppage in which workers shut down all machines and refuse to leave a factory until their demands are met.
Securities and Exchange Commission
Government agency having primary responsibility for enforcing the Federal securities laws and regulating the securities industry. It protected investors, listened to complaints, issued licenses and penalized fraud.
liberal
a person who favors a political philosophy of progress and reform and the protection of civil liberties
conservative
a person who believes government power, particularly in the economy, should be limited in order to maximize individual freedom
Bataan Death March
April 1942, American soldiers were forced to march 65 miles to prison camps by their Japanese captors. It is called the Death March because so may of the prisoners died en route.
Battle of Midway
U.S. naval victory over the Japanese fleet in June 1942, in which the Japanese lost four of their best aircraft carriers. It marked a turning point in World War II.
Island Hopping
the American navy attacked islands held by the Japanese in the Pacific Ocean. The capture of each successive island from the Japanese brought the American navy closer to an invasion of Japan.
Manhattan Project
The code name for the secret United States project set up in 1942 to develop atomic bombs for use in World War II
Hiroshima
City in Japan, the first to be destroyed by an atomic bomb, on August 6, 1945. The bombing hastened the end of World War II.
War Production Board
During WWII, FDR established it to allocated scarce materials, limited or stopped the production of civilian goods, and distributed contracts among competing manufacturers
Rationing
a limited portion or allowance of food or goods; limitation of use
Rosie the Riveter
A propaganda character designed to increase production of female workers in the factories. It became a rallying symbol for women to do their part.
A. Phillip Randolph
organized a march on Washington DC to protest treatment of black workers in government industries
Bracero Program
United States labor agents recruited thousands of farm and railroad workers from Mexico. The program stimulated emigration for Mexico.
Japanese-American Internment
Roosevelt signed a document Feb. 19,1942 stating that all people of Japanese ancestry from California and parts of Washington, Oregon, and Arizona, needed to be removed. Put them in internment camps because of their fear for another attack by the Japanese.
Marshall Plan
a United States program of economic aid for the reconstruction of Europe (1948-1952)
G.I Bill of Rights
Also known as Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944 gave money to veterans to study in colleges, universities, gave medical treatment, loans to buy a house or farm or start a new business
Nuremberg Trials
Trials of the Nazi leaders, showed that people are responsible for their actions, even in wartime
United Nations
an organization of independent states formed in 1945 to promote international peace and security
Fascism
Started in the 1930s, Italy by Mussolini. It is extreme patriotism to the point of racism