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237 terms

Midterm Review (TERMS/DEFINITIONS)

Srry if there are repeats! :D
STUDY
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cell
basic unit of functional structure in all organisms
cell membrane
surrounds the cell; controls what enters and exits the cell through semi-permeability
nucleus
contains genetic information of the cell
golgi bodies
organelles that package materials to be transported in and out of the cell
centriole
involved in cell reproduction; not found in plant cells
lysosome
contains enymes that break down materials in the cell
ribosome
organelle which is the site of protein synthesis
vacuole
stores wastes, as well as carbohydrates, water, salt, etc.
rough endoplasmic reticulum
functions in transport; called "rough" due to the presence of ribosomes on its surface
smooth endoplasmic reticulum
involved in synthesis of lipids
cytoplasm
liquid within cell that contains all of the cell's organelles and serves as the cell's circulatory system
mitochondria
site of cellular respiration
cell wall
stiff protective surrounding to the cell made of cellulose; only found in plant cells
homeostasis
the maintainance of internal stability
perspiration
excretion of waste products from sweat glands
nervous system
the sensory and control apparatus consisting of a network of nerve cells
impulse
the electrical discharge that travels along a nerve fiber
receptor
an organ having nerve endings that respond to stimulation
effector
an organ (a gland or muscle) that becomes active in response to nerve impulses
stimulus
a change in an organism's surroundings that causes a receptor to start impulses in a nerve pathway
response
a bodily process occurring due to the effect of some foregoing stimulus or agent
neuron
a cell that is specialized to conduct nerve impulses
cyton
the cell body of a neuron; contains nucleus
dendrite
short fiber that conducts toward the cell body of the neuron
axon
long nerve fiber that conducts away from the cell body of the neuron
myelin sheath
a layer of myelin encasing (and insulating) the axons of medullated nerve fibers
terminal branches
branched end of axon that contains neurotransmitters
synapse
the junction between two neurons (axon-to-dendrite) or between a neuron and a muscle
neurotransmitter
chemical used by a neuron to transmit an impulse across a synapse to another cell
cerebrum
anterior portion of the brain consisting of two hemispheres, involved in senses and the thought process
cerebellum
the "little brain" attached to the rear of the brainstem; it helps coordinate voluntary movement and balance
medulla
lower or hindmost part of the brain which is in control of most involuntary behaviors, including breathing rate and heart rate
spinal cord
a major part of the central nervous system which conducts sensory and motor nerve impulses to and from the brain
reflex
an automatic instinctive unlearned reaction to a stimulus
hormone
the secretion of an endocrine gland that is transmitted by the blood to the tissue on which it has a specific effect
endocrine system
the system of glands that produce endocrine secretions that help to control bodily metabolic activity
endocrine glands
glands of the endocrine system that release hormones into the bloodstream
pineal gland
gland in the brain which secretes the hormone melatonin, which is involved in sleep-wake cycles
hypothalamus
a neural structure lying below the thalamus; directs eating, drinking, body temperature; helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion
pituitary gland
the master gland of the endocrine system, secretes nine hormones which control other glands of the endocrine system
thyroid gland
secretes thyroxin, controls metabolic rate
parathyroid
for glands embedded in the thyroid; secretes hormone which controls level of calcium and phosphate (which influence levels of excitability)
thymus
a ductless glandular organ at the base of the neck that produces lymphocytes and aids in producing immunity
adrenal gland
either of a pair of complex endocrine glands situated near the kidney which secrete adrenaline
pancreas
a large elongated exocrine/endocrine gland located behind the stomach; secretes insulin and glucagon, which are involved in maintaining blood glucose levels
musculoskeletal system
the system of muscles and tendons and ligaments and bones and joints and associated tissues that move the body and maintain its form
bone
rigid connective tissue that makes up the skeleton of vertebrates
muscle
one of the contractile organs of the body
cartilage
strong connective tissue that supports the body and is softer and more flexible than bone
ligament
a sheet or band of tough fibrous tissue connecting bones or cartilages or supporting muscles or organs
tendon
a cord or band of inelastic tissue connecting a muscle with its bony attachment
connective tissue
tissue that holds organs in place and binds different parts of the body together
locomotion
self-propelled movement
endoskeleton
the internal skeleton
exoskeleton
the exterior protective or supporting structure or shell of many animals (especially invertebrates)
skeletal muscle
a muscle that is connected at either or both ends to a bone and so move parts of the skeleton
smooth muscle
a muscle that contracts without conscious control and found in walls of internal organs such as stomach and intestine and bladder and blood vessels (excluding the heart)
cardiac muscle
the muscle tissue of the heart
tendonitis
inflammation of a tendon
flexor
a skeletal muscle whose contraction bends a joint
ossification
the developmental process of bone formation
flagella
whiplike tails found in one-celled organisms to aid in movement
arthritis
joint inflammation
muscle fatigue
results from oxygen debt -- lactic acid accumulates in skeletal muscles
sensory neurons
carry impulses from the sense organs to the spinal cord and brain
motor neurons
carry impulses from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles and glands; send impulses to the effector in a reflex arc
interneurons
connect sensory and motor neurons and carry impulses between them
Schwann cells
produce fatty layers of myelin in some neurons
somatic nervous system
division of nervous system responsible for body movements over which an individual has some conscious awareness or voluntary control
autonomic nervous system
division of nervous system which regulates heart rate and controls the contraction of smooth muscles in the digestive system and in blood vessels
reflex arc
the pathway over which nerve impulses travel in a reflex
cerebral palsy
inborn disorder which affects voluntary muscles and speech centers of the brain
meningitis
inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord (virus or bacterial infection)
stroke
a sudden attack of weakness or paralysis that occurs when blood flow to an area of the brain is interrupted
polio (virus)
an acute viral disease marked by inflammation of nerve cells of the brain stem and spinal cord
exocrine glands
secrete hormones into ducts which carry hormones to where they are needed
feedback mechanism
a mechanism that controls how the endocrine system is activated and deactivated
goiter
an enlargement of the thyroid gland that is caused when the thyroid is unable to produce thyroxin due to lack of iodine
diabetes (mellitus)
the inability of the body to remove excess sugar from the blood and store as glycogen in the liver
target cells
the cells that have the receptor for a hormone
steroid hormones
can cross cell membranes easily into the cytoplasm and/or nuclei of target cells; produced from cholesterol
non-steroid hormones
proteins, small peptides, and amino acids that cannot pass through membranes of target cells
protagladin
hormone-like modified fatty acid produced by a wide range of cells; affects only nearby cells and tissue
gonads
male and female reproductive glands
nodes (of Ranvier)
small gaps in the myelin sheath of medullated axons
gametes
reproductive cells (sperm and egg cells)
melatonin
involved in sleep-wake cycles and rythmic activities; secreted by pineal gland
PTH
secreted by parathyroid; in charge of raising blood calcium levels
epinephrine
hormone released by adrenal glands; takes up 80% of the adrenal medulla
norepinephrine
hormone releases by adrenal glands; takes up 20% of adrenal medulla
thyroxin
secreted by thyroid; increases the rate of protein, carbs, and fat metabolism and the rate of cellular respiration; made up of thyrosine and iodine
glucagon
hormone secreted by the pancreas; increases levels of glucose in the blood
negative feedback
signals gland secreting hormone to stop production of hormone (ex. hormone that controls glucose levels is released. when glucose levels stabilize, gland producing hormone is signalled to stop)
positive feedback
signals gland secreting hormone to increase hormone production
myosin
a protein found in muscle fibers which is involved in contraction and relaxing of muscles; binds to actin
actin
protein found in muscle fibers which is involved in contracton and relaxation of muscles; myosin attaches to it when acetylcholine is present
insulin
hormone secreted by the pancreas; decreases levels of glucose in the blood
plasma
liquid portion of the blood
arteriole
a vessel that conveys blood between an artery and a capillary bed
iron
metal that makes blood red in color
nucleus
found in WBC's but not RBC's
white blood cells
protect the body against invading pathogens
platelets
involved in blood clotting
active immunity
the body produces its own antibodies to attack an antigen
passive immunity
only temporary, does not last more than 1 month; the body destroys the borrowed immunity
maternal immunity
mother passes antibodies to her newborn through her breast milk
RhoGAM
destroys antibodies made by mother during pregnancy
AIDS
collapses immune system and kills patient from an opportunistic infection such as pneumonia
autoimmune disorder
when the body fails to recognize some of the body cells as belonging to "self"
allergies
an overreaction to an antigen that is normally harmless; histomines are released
anemia
disorder of the RBC's; "iron poor"
sickle-cell anemia
a genetic condition in which the RBC's are abnormally shaped
leukemia
a form of cancer in which a person does not have proper clotting factors
hormones
transported within the body from one organ to another
lungs
transports blood to the left atrium
valves
flaps of tissue that open and close to prevent backflow of the blood
arteries
thick-walled blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart to other parts of the body
veins
thin-walled blood vessels that carry blood back to the heart
capillaries
tiny, thin-walled blood vessels that allow the exchange of gases and nutrients between the blood and the cells of the body
aorta
branches off of the right ventricle and sends oxygenated blood to all parts of the body
pulmonary arteries
send blood to the lungs to get oxygen
vena cavas
returns deoxygenated blood from the body to the right atrium
red blood cells
contain hemoglobin and carry oxygen through the bloodstream
atherosclerosis
when arteries are clogged with "plaque"
angina pectoris
pains in the chest due to reduced blood flow in the heart
anginoplasty
a common treatment for angina pectoris
myocardinal infarction
major blockage in a coronary artery
pathogen
a virus or organism that can cause disease
cancer
abnormal cells multiply uncontrollably, and disrupt normal functioning of one or more organs
antigen
any substance that stimulates the production of antibodies
antibody
a specialized protein made by the body to fight off future infections from a disease-causing organism
vaccine
substance prepared from killed or weakened pathogens introduced into a body to produce immunity
coronary artery
branches from the aorta to supply blood to the heart
bicuspid valve
guards the opening between the left atrium and the left ventricle and prevents the blood in the ventricle from returning to the atrium
tricuspid valve
closes when the right ventricle contracts, allowing blood flow into the lungs and prevent backflow into the right atrium
oxygenated blood
enters the left side of the heart and exits through the aorta to the body
deoxygenated blood
carried by pulmonary circulation and enters through the right atrium of the heart from the lungs
nasal cavity
secretes mucus, where incoming air is filtered, warmed, and moistened
alveoli
thin-walled microscopic air sacs in the lungs where gas exchange occurs
diaphragm
attached to the lower ribs that functions as the main muscle in respiration
breathing
the process of drawing air into the lungs
medulla
part of the brain that controls breathing rate
bronchitis
inflammation of the linings of the bronchial tubes
asthma
contraction of the bronchi due to an allergic response
emphysema
alveoli enlarge and degenerate and lung capacity increases due to cigarette smoking
pneumonia
a bacterial or viral infection of the lungs where the alveoli fill with fluid
lung cancer
uncontrollable growth of tumors in the lungs
systemic circulation
Circulation of blood throughout the body through arteries, arterioles, capillaries, and veins to deliver oxygen and nutrients to body tissues
pulmonary circulation
Circulation of blood from the pulmonary artery through the vessels in the lungs and back to the heart via the pulmonary vein, providing for the exchange of gases
coronary circulation
Circulation of blood through the coronary blood vessels to deliver oxygen and nutrients to the heart muscle tissue
random flashcard
This flashcard is used to tick people off. :)
semilunar valve
A valve located at the two exits of the heart, where the aorta leaves the left ventricle and the pulmonary artery leaves the right ventricle.
interferon
A family of proteins produced by the T cells whose specialty is fighting viruses by slowing or stopping their multiplication
histamines
Chemicals that increase blood flow and fluids to surrounding area
macrophage
Large white blood cell that removes bacteria, foreign particles, and dead cells
inflammatory response
A protective response of tissues affected by disease or injury, characterized by redness, swelling, and pain
HIV
-The virus that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)
-Human Immunodeficiency Virus
-Replicates and kills T-Cells
T-Cell
Identifies pathogens and distinguish one kind of pathogen from another
B-Cell
A type of lymphocyte that can recognize (bind to) an antigen and secrete an antibody specific for that antigen. When activated by binding to an antigen, B cells mature into plasma cells (that secreted antibody) and memory cells (that patrol the body for future encounters with that antigen). - must be activated by Helper T cell also, though.
pericardum
a double-walled membrane that encloses the heart
systole
contraction phase of the heartbeat
diastole
relaxation phase of the heartbeat
pacemaker
a specialized bit of heart tissue that controls the heartbeat
cardiac
of or relating to the heart
hemophilia
a hereditary disease where blood does not coagulate to stop bleeding
pulse
the rhythmic contraction and expansion of the arteries with each beat of the heart
lymph
the clear fluid that bathes each cell and transfers needed substances and wastes back and forth between the blood and the cells. Lymph also plays a role in immunity.
Kidneys
Two structures located on each side of the lumbar region that filter blood and secrete impurities, forming urine.
Nephron
blood-filtering unit in the renal cortex of the kidney
Excretion
removal of wastes produced by metabolic reactions
Lungs
two spongy organs, located in the thoracic cavity enclosed by the diaphragm and rib cage, responsible for respiration
Skin
integumentary system protective covering for body, prevents bacteria etc entering, prevents excess water leaving, protects organs from injury, sensory system thru nerves, regulates body temp when blood vessels dialate or contrict moving bood & heat to or from surface
Loop of Henle
The long hairpin turn, with a descending and ascending limb, of the renal tubule in the vertebrate kidney; functions in water and salt reabsorption.
Bowman's Capsule
cup-shaped structure of the nephron of a kidney which encloses the glomerulus and which filtration takes place.
Glomerus
A cluster of capillaries that filter the blood; located within the BOWMAN'S CAPSULE.
Renal Tubule
system of tubes in the nephron where reabsorption of some substances takes place
Collecting Duct
The location in the kidney where processed filtrate, called urine, is collected from the renal tubules.
Ureter
tube that carries urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder
Urinary Bladder
The pouch where urine is stored prior to elimination.
Urethra
tube leading from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body
Mechanical Digestion
The physical breakdown of food into smaller pieces.
Chemical Digestion
The breakdown of food into smaller chemical compounds with the use of enzymes and other substances.
Peristalsis
Muscular contractions in the body that guide food/bolus through the digestive system.
Emulsification
The breakdown of fats/lipids with bile.
Mouth
-Where food enters the Dig. Sys.
-Carbs are broken down with salivary amylase.
-Food is separated into smaller pieces by teeth.
Esophagus
A food tube connecting the MOUTH to the STOMACH.
Stomach
A muscular organ with folds (rugae) that digests chemically with the enzymes: pepsin, renin, and lipase, and the acid HCl. It also "pummels" the food with its muscular walls in MECHANICAL DIGESTION.
Small Intestine
-A long tube where carbs, proteins, and lipids are digested with amylase, protease, lipase and bile.
-Where the most DIGESTION takes place.
-Where nutrients are absorbed into the blood stream.
-Contains VILLI and folds that increase the surface area for more nutrient DIGESTION.
-Separated into 3 sections: the duodenum, jejunim, and ileum.
Liver
-Produces bile and sends it to the GALL BLADDER.
-Contains glycogen.
-Produces uric acid/urea and sends it to the KIDNEYS.
-Recycles worn out red blood cells.
-Carries out DEAMINATION.
Gall Bladder
An organ that stores bile and sends it to the upper part of the SMALL INTESTINE (duodenum) for the process of EMULSIFICATION.
Pancreas
Secretes pancreatic juice, which contains: amylase, protease, lipase, and sodium bicarbonate,into the upper part of the SMALL INTESTINE.
Large Intestine
The reabsorption of water in the food mass occurs here. Wastes, or undigestible and insoluble materials are produced for removal.
Absorption
The absorbing of nutrients for use in an organism.
Rectum
A 5 foot long storage area for feces.
Anus
Where feces is eliminated from the body.
Epiglottis
A flap of tissue that seals off the windpipe (trachea) and prevents food from entering.
Tongue
A muscle that pushes the bolus into the ESOPHAGUS. Has 4 different types of taste buds: salty, sweet, sour, and bitter.
Saliva
Contains water and salivary amylase, which breaks down carbs.
Villi
Finger-like projections in the SMALL INTESTINE that: have a single layer of cells, increase the surface area and increase ABSORPTION.
Ingestion
The process of taking in food.
Digestion
The process by which the body breaks down food into small nutrient molecules.
Intracellular Digestion
When the DIGESTION of food happens in the cell.
Extracellular Digestion
The process in which food is broken down outside the cells in a digestive tract.
Egestion
The removal of indigestible and unsoluble waste materials.
Roughage
The enzyme that breaks down cell walls.
Heterotrophic Nutrition
When organisms get nutrition by eating organic material (food).
Deamination
The removal of the amine group from an amino acid.
Takes place in the liver.
Simple leaf
a leaf that is made up of one entire blade
Compound leaf
a leaf with many leaflets as its blade
Cuticle
the part of the leaf that protects the epidermis and creates a waterproof barrier
Upper epidermis
the part of the leaf above the palisades layer that prevents the loss of water
Palisades layer (mesophyll)
the part of the leaf that absorbs light with chloroplasts for photosynthesis; it is tighter and more dense than the spongy layer
Spongy layer (mesophyll)
the part of the leaf where most photosynthesis occurs; it is "spongy" and less dense due to the gasses that pass in and out of the leaf as a result of photosynthesis and respiration
Xylem
the vascular tissue in the spongy layer that transports water throughout the plant
Phloem
the vascular tissue in the spongy layer that transports food throughout the plant
Lower epidermis
the part of the leaf below the spongy layer that has the stomata and guard cells
Stoma
the opening in the lower epidermis through which gases (oxygen, carbon dioxide, water vapor) pass through; controled by the two guard cells surrounding it
Guard cells
the cells surrounding each stoma that open and close the stomata
Root
the part of the plant below ground that takes in water and nutrients and pass them along to the stem; also anchors plant in the ground; food is often stored in them as well
Epidermis (root)
the outermost part of the root that protects the root
Cortex
the part of the root for storing food; they are irregularly shaped cells in between the epidermis and the endodermis
Endodermis
the part of the root that protects the xylem and phloem
Primary root
the root that is the first to develop from a germinating seed
Secondary root
the roots that branch off of the primary root
Root hairs
the "very fine hair-like structures" jutting out from the epidermis (root); each is one cell with a cell wall made of cellulose
Fibrous root system
a root system consisting of many small roots; secondary roots can be as big as the primary root
Ex. Grass
Taproot system
a root system in which the primary root is the largest in the root system; when the primary root grows quickly
Ex. Carrot
Tropism
a growth response to stimuli
Geotropism
growth towards gravity
Phototropism
growth towards light
Thigmotropism
response to touch
Hydrotropism
response to water
Positive tropism
growth towards a stimulus
Negative tropism
growth away from a stimulus
Stem
transports materials between the roots and the leaves; provides support for other plant parts
Woody stems
stems that are made of wood and are more firm; plants with these stems tend to live longer than two years
Herbaceous stems
stems that are generally softer, juicier and thinner than woody stems; plants with these stems usually have short life span (one or two years)