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AP Human Geography Chp. # 8
Terms in this set (60)
Balance of power
Condition of roughly equal strength between opposing countries or alliances of countries.
Invisible line that marks the extent of a state's territory.
A sovereign state comprising a city and its immediate hinterland.
A territory that is legally tied to a sovereign state rather than completely independent.
The effort by one country to establish settlements and to impose its political, economic and cultural principles on such territory.
A state in which the distance from the center to any boundary does not vary significantly (efficent).
Transfer of central to regional government systems (unitary to federal-Poland).
A state with a long, narrow shape (potential isolation).
An internal organization of a state that allocates most powers to units of local government.
A state that includes several discontinuous pieces of territory (problematic).
A zone separating two states in which neither state exercises political control.
Combination of politics and geography that helps us understand the forces that are transforming the map of the world.
What did Ratzel believe?
That states are like organisms, eat or be eaten.
What did Mackinder believe?
Whoever ruled the heartland (Eastern Europe) ruled the world.
Process of redrawing legislative boundaries for the purpose of benefiting the party in power.
Control of territory already occupied and organized by an indigenous society.
A state that does not have a direct outlet to the sea.
A state that encompasses a very small land area.
Peace of Westphalia
Treaty in 1648 between European prince that established the basis for territories defined by states. Boundaries were fixed and rulers became sovereign over the territories and people inhabited there.
A state that completely surrounds another one (South Africa).
An otherwise compact state with a large projecting extension (access or disruption).
Ability of a state to govern its territory free from control of its internal affairs by other states.
An area organized into a political unit and ruled by an established government that has control over its internal and foreign affairs (country).
Systematic use of violence by a group in order to intimidate a population or coerce a government into granting its demands.
An internal organization of a state that places most power in the hands of central government officials.
What states used to be the old superpowers?
The United States and the Soviet Union.
What does a country need to have to be a state?
Defined boundaries, external recognizition by other states, sovereignty, permanent population, government and economic system, and a school and transportation system.
Where is the defintion of state tested?
Korea, China, and Western Sahara (Sahrawi Republic).
How did the Chinese change government systems?
Nationalists to Communists.
What is the Law of the Sea on the Artic Circle?
All states can submit claims until 2009.
What is the largest state?
Russia (used to be the Soviet Union).
What is the smallest state?
Vatican City-fits inside of Rome (textbook says it is Monaco).
The development of states occured in what area?
The Fertile Cresent.
What were the basic reasons to establish a colony?
God (promote Christianity), gold (find resources), and glory (indicate relative power).
Who had the largest colonial empire?
The British with France in second.
What is the most populous remaining colony?
What are the 5 basic shapes of states?
Compact, elongated, fragmented, prorupted, and perforated.
What are the 2 kinds of fragmented states?
Those separated by water and those separated by intervening obstacles.
Where are landlocked states most common?
What are the 2 types of boundaries?
Physical and cultural.
What are the 3 physical boundaries between states?
Deserts, mountains, and water.
What are the 2 types of cultural boundaries?
Geometric (straight lines) and ethnic (language and religion).
Who redraws the U.S congressional district boundaries?
What are the 3 forms of gerrymandering?
Wasted, excess, and stacked vote.
What is the most important global organization?
The United Nations.
What are the 5 members of the security council?
The United States, the United Kingdom, China, Russia, and France.
What were the 2 military alliances made after World War II?
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and the Warsaw Pact.
Other organizations wanted to seek what?
Economic and cultural cooperation.
What were some other organizations?
The organization on security and cooperation in Europe (OSCE), the organization of American states (OAS), the African union (AU), and the Commonwealth (former British colonies).
What are 2 differences in global power?
Now economic rather than military power, and not a single state but a union of states.
The European Union (West Europe) seeks what?
Economic and political cooperation, making it the world's wealthiest market (free trade).
Who do terrorists intend to attack?
Who made al-Qaeda?
Osama bin Laden.
What was jihad?
The holy war against the Soviet Union.
What did al-Qaeda justify its attacks with?
Is al-Qaeda a single unifed organization?
What scales did a research team use to make conclusions about Osama bin Laden's hiding place?
Global, regional, and local.
What are the 3 levels of involvement in terrorism?
Providing sanctuary, supplying weapons, money, and intelligence, and planning attacks with terrorists.
Why did the U.S attack Iraq?
To get Saddam Hussein who made mass destruction weapons that terrorists could potentially use.
Where are Iraq's ethnic group regions located?
The Kurds in the north, Sunnis in the center, and the Shiites in the south.
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