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Chapter 8 EVOLUTION LAB
Terms in this set (28)
genetic change over time.
describes how, if certain conditions are met, that genetic equilibrium would continue.
means that the frequency of genotypes controlling that trait does not change from one generation to the next.
What happens if the frequency changes?
If the frequency does change, then Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium is not maintained.
the ability to taste PTC or not.
alternate versions of that gene.
A person who has at least one allele (T) is able to taste PTC, whereas a person with only the alternate allele (t) is not able to taste PTC. Therefore we know that T is dominant to t.
A non-taster, however, can be only homozygous recessive (tt).
What are the two different alleles in the population?
T = PTC taster
t = PTC non-taster
By convention, what is the frequency of the dominant allele designated?
The frequency of the dominant allele is designated p.
By convention, what is the frequency of the recessive allele designated?
The frequency of the recessive allele is designated q.
p(frequency of the dominant allele) + q(frequency of the recessive allele) = 1 (frequency of the total alleles in the population)
(p+q)(p+q) = (p+q)^2 = p^2 + 2pq + q^2 = 1
What are the genotype frequencies represented as?
the frequency (percent) of the population that has the homozygous recessive genotype.
the frequency (percent) of the population that has the homozygous dominant genotype.
the frequency (percent) of the population that has the heterozygous genotype.
= number of students with a genotype/ total number of students in the class
What are some of the scientific evidence supporting evolution?
What amount of information can the fossil record provide?
-what species (the different types, their abundance, and distribution) that were present at any given time in the history of earth.
-when a species first appeared on the planet, and how many years before the species went extinct.
-the occurrence and timing of mass extinctions
-the diet and behavior of extinct species
What is the name of the hominid ancestor?
characteristics, if they are similar because of shared ancestry.
evidence for homologous structures being adapted to different functions.
in which characteristics may appear similar because of adaptation in unrelated lineages to the same environmental factors.
fish, chicken, pig, and human embryos.
What are found in early embryos of all vertebrates?
What do aquatic animals use?
Differences like gills versus eardrums suggest the divergence from a path of common ancestry.
What actions are coordinated that determine which genes are turned on and which genes are turned off?
master control genes
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