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normal is amber-abnormal red


s/b clear-cloudy or turbid indicates pus and bacteria


normal is 6.5-slightly acidic


s/b none-if albumin is detected could mean leak in glomerular membrane


s/b no sugar-most cases it indicates diabetes mellitus

specific gravity

the amount of wastes, minerals, and solids in the urine

ketone bodies

accumulate in urine and blood when body breaks down fat instead of sugar for fuel-dangerous because of high acidity of the blood

sediment and casts

presence of abnormal particles is a sign of a pathologic condition

phenylketonuria (PKU)

phenylketones accumulate in newborns lacking the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase-leads to mental retardation


if present may indicate liver or gallbladder disease

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