normal is amber-abnormal red
s/b clear-cloudy or turbid indicates pus and bacteria
normal is 6.5-slightly acidic
s/b none-if albumin is detected could mean leak in glomerular membrane
s/b no sugar-most cases it indicates diabetes mellitus
the amount of wastes, minerals, and solids in the urine
accumulate in urine and blood when body breaks down fat instead of sugar for fuel-dangerous because of high acidity of the blood
sediment and casts
presence of abnormal particles is a sign of a pathologic condition
phenylketones accumulate in newborns lacking the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase-leads to mental retardation
if present may indicate liver or gallbladder disease
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