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US History to 1865 Midterm
Terms in this set (44)
Medieval Warm Period (800-1300 CE)
a time of warm climate in the North Atlantic region, lasting from about AD 800-1300. It was followed by a cooler period in the North Atlantic termed the Little Ice Age.
Columbian Exchange (15 - 16 centuries)
The exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americas and the rest of the world following Columbus's voyages.
Christopher Columbus (1451-1506)
An Italian navigator who was funded by the Spanish Government to find a passage to the Far East. He is given credit for discovering the "New World," even though at his death he believed he had made it to India. He made four voyages to the "New World." The first sighting of land was on October 12, 1492, and three other journeys until the time of his death in 1503.
Native Americans that lived in the forest to the East
Semi-nomadic: crops in summer, hunt in winter
Confederacy of several different tribes
Chief Powhatan - Pocahontas
John Rolfe (1611) brought tobacco to Virginia
Very high maintenance crop
Indentured servants was a solution
- servants were not guaranteed to survive
Colonists who received free passage to North America in exchange for working without pay for a certain number of years
Were mistreated by their owners, some died
Used to harvest crops (tobacco)
House of Burgesses (1619)
The first elected lawmaking body in North America, established by the Virginia Company to allow representative government in Virginia.
Nathaniel Bacon thought it was full of corruption and favored the Native Americans over the people
Early form of Congress
Bacon's Rebellion (1676)
Group of poor and indentured colonists rise up against the government that favors Native American demands over own people
Led by Nathaniel Bacon
Group attacked Native Americans in retaliation
Eventually defeated and all were killed
Also included black slaves
Charles I (1600-1649)
King of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1625-1649). His power struggles with Parliament resulted in the English Civil War (1642-1648) in which Charles was defeated. He was tried for treason and beheaded in 1649
The Great Migration (1630-1650)
English migration to Massachusetts consisted of a few hundred pilgrims who went to Plymouth Colony in the 1620s and between 13,000 and 21,000 emigrants who went to the Massachusetts Bay Colony between 1630 and 1642.
The Puritans left England primarily due to religious persecution but also for economic reasons as well. England was in religious turmoil in the early 17th century, the religious climate was hostile and threatening, especially towards religious nonconformists like the puritans.
King Philip's War (1675-1676)
Series of assaults by Metacom, King Philip, on English settlements in New England. The attacks slowed the westward migration of New England settlers for several decades.
Many colonists were kidnapped and ransomed for, Mary Rowlandson being among the most famous
(n.) the policy or practice of treating or governing people in the manner of a father dealing with his children
This includes men in power: kings, priests, government officials, etc.
Men were the pinnacle of society at this time, seen as the most important
A common-law doctrine under which the legal personality of the husband covered the wife and he made all legally binding decisions
If the woman was not married she would be legally bound by her father or oldest male relative if she never married
since men were often away at war or ill, women became temporary heads of their households
did chores that men would usually do: hard labor, discipline the children, take care of finances
this was commonplace during the Revolutionary War
Women who were often older and widowed that helped deliver babies and helped take care of women with health problems.
a common job for women back then
Martha Ballward, Hallowell, Maine
- delivered 816 babies in her career
Anne Hutchinson (1591 - 1643)
A Puritan woman who was well learned that disagreed with the Puritan Church in Massachusetts Bay Colony. Her actions resulted in her banishment from the colony, and later took part in the formation of Rhode Island. She displayed the importance of questioning authority.
In 1637, she was tried for heresy for trying to overthrow paternalism. She believed women were equal and could preform duties just as well as men, even believed in women priests. She preached in her household secretly before she was caught.
She was what colonists knew as an "eve."
Salem Witchcraft Crisis (1692-1693)
In the town of Salem, a little girl named Betty Parris was assumed to be possessed by a witch. Accusations for witches in the town.
144 charges of witchcraft
20 women and men executed
British governmental theory that Parliament spoke for all British subjects, including Americans, even if they did not vote for its members
Charles I disabled Parliament however because he did not like this system.
This led to the English Civil War and Charles I's execution, along with the Scots Rebel.
The Restoration (1660)
Restored the English monarchy to Charles II, both Houses of Parliament were restored, established Anglican church, courts of law and local government.
King = commander in chief
Parliament = purse
Glorious Revolution (1688)
The bloodless coup in 1688 in England when James II (a Catholic) gave up the throne and his daughter Mary and her husband William of Orange (of the Netherlands) - both Protestants - replaced James II to reign jointly. No Catholic monarch has reigned in England since. James II flees. Battle of Boyne 1690, Jacobite pretenders.
Toleration Act (1689)
The Toleration Act of 1689 extended a degree of freedom of worship to all Christians except Catholics and Unitarians, although dissenters from the established church still had few political rights. Also later established in Britain.
Act of Settlement (1701)
William and Mary had no male heirs, only their daughter Anne
George, Prince of Hanover, would follow Queen Anne if she had no heirs
George agrees to a parliamentary monarchy that he could not:
- use English sources in Hanover
- Leave to fight wars in Europe without Parliamentary consent
- Place non-Englishmen in positions of power or landholders
Anglo-Scottish Union (1707)
The Acts of Union were two Acts of Parliament: the Union with Scotland Act 1706 passed by the Parliament of England, and the Union with England Act passed in 1707 by the Parliament of Scotland. They put into effect the terms of the Treaty of Union that had been agreed on 22 July 1706, following negotiation between commissioners representing the parliaments of the two countries. By the two Acts, the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland—which at the time were separate states with separate legislatures, but with the same monarch—were, in the words of the Treaty, "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain".
an English policy of relaxing the enforcement of regulations in its colonies in return for the colonies' continued economic loyalty.
But the policy had an unintended side effect: it enabled the colonies to operate independently of Britain, both economically and politically, and to forge an American identity.
Anglicization - Seven Years War
1754 - 1763
emulated models of the British: furniture, clothes, architecture, cities, and people
after the war, Britain was in debt and focus turned to raising money for stationing soldiers in North America
the colonists hated this because they were being taxed so much
led to the formation of the Sons of Liberty
A 1763 conflict between Native Americans and the British over settlement of Indian lands in the Great Lakes area
Proclamation of 1763 - prohibited American colonists from settling west of Appalachia, which the Native Americans owned and were allowed to live due to the proclamation
Proclamation of 1763
A proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalacian Mountains, and which required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back east. Settled Pontiac's War.
1765; law that taxed printed goods, including: playing cards, documents, newspapers, etc.
this act started the American rebellion and fueled the desire for them to branch off from Britain
Sons of Liberty
A radical political organization for colonial independence which formed in 1765 after the passage of the Stamp Act. They incited riots and burned the customs houses where the stamped British paper was kept. After the repeal of the Stamp Act, many of the local chapters formed the Committees of Correspondence which continued to promote opposition to British policies towards the colonies. The Sons leaders included Samuel Adams and Paul Revere.
Act passed in 1766 after the repeal of the stamp act; stated that Parliament had authority over the the colonies and the right to tax and pass legislation "in all cases whatsoever." This act was created because the Americans were angry on how much they were being taxed and used by Britain.
Townshend Revenue Act (1767)
tax to be placed on tea, glass, and paper. revenues raised be used to pay crown officials in the colonies. The writ of assistance was a general license to search anywhere, rather than a judge's warrant permitting a search only of a specifically named property. Lord Frederick North as the new prime minister urged Parliament to repeal the townshend acts because of their effect. A small tax on tea was retained as a symbol of Parliament's right to tax the colonies
Boston Massacre (1770)
The Massacre was the 1770, pre-Revolutionary incident growing out of the anger against the British troops sent to Boston to maintain order and to enforce the Townshend Acts. The troops, constantly tormented by irresponsible gangs, finally on March 5, 1770, fired into a rioting crowd and killed five men: three on the spot, two of wounds later. The funeral of the victims was the occasion for a great patriot demonstration. The British captain, Thomas Preston, and his men were tried for murder, with Robert Treat Paine as prosecutor, John Adams and Josiah Quincy as lawyers for the defense. Preston and six of his men were acquitted; two others were found guilty of manslaughter, punished, and discharged from the army.
Declaration of Independence (1776)
The fundamental document establishing the US as an independent nation, adopted on July 4, 1776. It declared the 13 colonies independent from Britain, offered reasons for the separation laid out the principles for which the Revolution was fought
Articles of Confederation (1781)
First American constitution that established the United States as a loose confederation of states under a weak national Congress, which was not granted the power to regulate commerce or collect taxes. The Articles were replaced by a more efficient Constitution in 1789.
A philosophy of limited government with elected representatives serving at the will of the people. The government is based on consent of the governed.
Proposed by James Madison.
Daughters of Liberty
An organization formed by women prior to the American Revolution. They got together to protest treatment of the colonies by their British Rulers.
Protested the Stamp Act, Declaratory Act, and the Townshend Revenue Act.
Abigail Adams was a leader.
They refused to drink British tea and used their skills to weave yarn and wool into cloth, which made America less dependent on British textiles.
The idea that American women had a special responsibility to cultivate "civic virtue" in their children.
Cotton ends the antislavery trajectory of the eighteenth century.
Cotton was super high maintenance to take care of and was the South's primary crop. It took a lot of effort to pick.
Northwest Ordinance (1787)
Describes process of turning territories into sovereign states
5,000 male, land-owning population mark
60,000 to write a constitution and apply for statehood
Western regions would become equal sister states, not colonies
Federalism = US would be made of mini-republics (i.e. states) under a larger central republic (federal government)
Daniel Shay's Rebellion (1786-1787)
Impoverished backcountry farmers and revolutionary war veterans, rebelled under Captain Daniel Shays and demanded lighter taxes, no more property takeover and cheap paper money. They rose in armed rebellion, but were defeated by an army raised by Massachusetts's authority.
Meeting in 1787 of the elected representatives of the thirteen original states to write the Constitution of the United States.
Took place in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
The Constitution would replace the Articles of Confederation and limit state powers.
Supporters of the U.S. Constitution at the time the states were contemplating its adoption. Their adopted name implied a commitment to a loose, decentralized system of government. In many respects "federalism" — which implies a strong central government — was the opposite of the proposed plan that they supported.
Opponents of ratification of the Constitution and of a strong central government, generally.
Samuel Adams, Patrick Henry, Mercy Otis Warren
Thought the Constitution was a major threat to liberty and too British.
The Bill of Rights
First ten amendments to the Constitution; major source of civil liberties; applies to states via selective incorporation doctrine; promised to Anti-Federalists to secure ratification of Constitution.
Ratified in 1788.
New government began on March 4th, 1789.
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