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history exam #1
Terms in this set (51)
industrial revolution dates
Jewish word for "catastrophe". Specifically, the killing of nearly six million Jews during WWII.
second industrial revolution date
late 19th into early 20th century
second industrial revolution significance
telephones and electric power
loyalty by soil, "jus solis", this is the idea that you are loyal to the country if you were born there, lived there, even if you technically have "blood" of another country or ethnicity.
loyalty by blood, "jus sanguinis", this is the idea that you are only a part of/ loyal to a country if you have "pure blood" of that country. Even those who had been living in a country for generation, if their blood was "impure" they are not considered countrymen.
hatred of the Jews. Has been around since before the middle ages, came again during WWI and II.
protocols of the elders of Zion date
1903, and spread throughout the early part of the 20th century.
what is the protocols of the elders of Zion
an anti-semitic text made to describe the Jewish plan for global domination. It claimed that Jews planned to undermine Germany and take over the wold. Anti-semitic propaganda.
mid 19th century
the idea that all German speaking countries should be a part of a "greater Germany". Originally Karl Lueger's idea, Austria should NOT be an independent country but instead should be a part of Germany. This led Hitler to believe that he is German.
Karl Lueger date
Who is Karl Lueger
The mayor of Vienna while Hitler lived there. Deeply anti-semitic. believed that Jews and Communists were the ultimate enemy.
battle of Verdun date
significance of the Battle of Verdun
battle between Germany and France. The biggest and bloodiest battle of WWI and both the French and German troops suffered major casualties. The Germans hoped to attack the French with little resistance, but instead poor weather delayed the attack. French was said to lose more bodies, both suffered major loss.
Armenian Genocide date
what was the Armenian Genocide
The ottoman Empire's systematic extermination of the Armenian people (1.5 million) mostly citizens of the Ottoman Empire. Rounded up and arrested and led to the Syrian dessert Women, children, and the elderly, considered a genocide (intent to kill). killed and enslaved able-bodied men.
tehcir laws date and person
1915. Mehmet Talat Pasha.
tehcir laws significance
this was part of the "special measures" that the Ottoman Empire took during WWI against the Armenian population. The Turks believed that the Armenians were working with the Russians (because Armenians were Orthodox Christians). Accused the Armenians of being German spies, began by isolating the intellectuals.
warfare that includes all civilian-associated resources and infrastructure, mobilizes all of the resources society has to fight the war, and gives priority to the war over anything else, civilians included.
18th into early 20th century
what is the Freikorps
the irregular German military volunteer units that existed to fight as mercenary or private armies, regardless of their own nationality. In the wake of WWI, the majority were war veterans who were unhappy with the outcome and Germany's treatment in the war. They wanted to overthrow the communists attempting to break up the Weimar Republic, but were also responsible for assassinations of Weimar people.
stab in the back legend
1918, the notion and widely-believed idea by those in right-wing circles in Germany that the German army did NOT lose WWI on the battle field but was instead betrayed by civilians on the home front, especially the republicans who overthrew the monarchy in the German Revolution of 1918-1919. The Nazi party made this an integral part of their beliefs and regime.
the Prime Minister of Italy from the Fascist takeover of state power in 1922. Executed during the Italian civil war. He was a member of the Italian Socialist Party. He advocated for "revolutionary nationalism" transcending class lines (communist beliefs). He created a one-party dictatorship and formed the Axis powers with Japan and Germany during WWII.
Ernst Rohm led from...
who was Ernst Rohm
A German military officer and early member of the Nazi party. He was a close friend and ally of Hitler, and a cofounder of the SA (Storm Batallion). By 1934, the Germany Army feared the SA's influence and hitler came to see Rohm as a potential rival, so Rohm was executed during the Knight of the Long Knives.
when was the SA (Sturmabteilung) formed
what is the SA?
the Nazi party's original military. It played a significant role in hitler's rise to power in 1920s and early 30s. Its primary purpose was to provide protection for Nazi rallies, disrupt opposing party meetings, especially communists, and of course to quell (violently) Jews, LGBTQ+, Romani people, and any deviants.
Franz von Papen date
chancellor of Germany in 1932 and vice-Chancellor under Hitler in 1933-34.
who was Franz von Papen
He was a conservative German politician, diplomat, and nobleman. He served as a battalion commander in WWI and believed that Hitler could be better persuaded if Hitler came into government, so he convinced Hinddenburg to make Hitler Chancellor.
Reichstag fire date
significance of the Reichstag fire
It was an arson attack on the Reichstag building, the home of the German parliament in Berlin, four weeks after Hitler was sworn in as Chancellor of Germany. Hitler's government said Marinus van der Lubbe was the culprit, a communist. This was considered a pivotal event in the establishment of Nazi Germany . the Term "Reichstag fire" is commonly used to refer to false actions facilitated by authority to promote their own interets.
Martin Niemoller date
1892-1984. Imprisoned for detachment from 1938-1945.
who was martin niemoller
He was a German theologian and Lutheran pastor. He is best known for his opposition to the Nazi regime during the 1930s. He was at first a supporter of Hitler, but he came to found the Confessing Church, which opposed Nazifiction of German Protestant churches.
operated from 1933-1945.
significance of Dachau
It was the first Nazi concentration camp intended to hold political prisoners. It is located in Southern Germany. It was opened by Heinrich Himmler, and its purpose was to enforce labor on Jews, criminals, and eventually foreign nationals from countries that Germany occupied and invaded.
Night of the Long Knives date
June30-July 2, 1934.
what is the significance of the Knight of the Long Knives
It was the purge that took place in Nazi Germany. Hitler, urged by Hermann Goring and Heinrich Himmler, ordered a series of political executions intended to consolidate power and alleviate the public concerns about the role of Ernst Rohm and the SA. Nazi propaganda presented the murders as preventative measures against a looming coup by the SA under Rohm.
Nuremburg Laws date
what are the Nuremburg Laws
the laws excluded German Jews from Reich citizenship and prohibited them from marrying anyone with German blood. The laws disenfranchised Jews and deprived them of their right.s. The laws made it so anyone with 3 or 4 Jewish grandparents is automatically considered Jewish, even if they never practiced the religion. During the 1936 Olympic games however, Germany took down some of their antisemitic posters.
Munich Agreement date
significance of the Munich Agreement
treaty concluded in Munich between Germany, the UK, France, and Italy that Czechoslovakia will become a part of Germany. Hitler wanted to make sure that all German speaking people there would become apart of Germany.
Molotov-Ribbentrop pact date
AKA the treaty of non-aggression. It was a neutrality pact between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union signed in Moscow by Ribbentrop and Molotov. The clause provided a written guarantee of peace by each party toward one another, and declared commitment that neither country would ally itself with opposing party. It also defined the borders of Soviet Union and German territories of the following countries: Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, and Finland. This is significant because shorty after on September 1, 1939 Germany invaded Poland.
Vichy Regime date
significance of the Vichy Regime
The french State during WWII under Marshal Phillipe Petain. He was evacuated from Paris to Vichy in the unoccupied "free zone" in the southern part of France. The Germans occupied Northers and south-eastern France during this time. While Paris remained the capital of France, Vichy became the de facto capital of the French State.
The Blitz dates
Sep 1940- May 1941
What is The Blitz
Nazi Germany's sustained aerial bombing campaign against Britain during WWII. The raids killed 43,000 civilians and lasted for 8 months, petering out when Hitler began to focus his plan on his Russian invasion in 1941.
what is the Einstazgruppen
It was the paramilitary death squad of Nazi Germany that were responsible for mass killings, primarily shooting, during WWII in German-occupied Europe. They were responsible for the murder of much of the intelligenisa, members of the priesthood, and cultural elite of Poland. In addition to being responsible for the murder of many Jews and Romani people. Almost all of the people that they killed were civilians.
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