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Chapter 4: Leadership Theory and Practice
Terms in this set (19)
What leaders do and how they act.
- framework for assessing leadership in a broad way, as behavior with a task and relationship dimension.
- works not by telling leaders how to behave, but by describing the major components of their behavior
- reminds leaders that their actions toward others occur on a task level and a relationship level.
- sometimes leaders need to be more task oriented.
- some subordinates need leaders who provide a lot of direction, whereas others need leaders who can show them a great deal of nurturance and support
- a way to look at his or her own behavior by subdividing it into two dimensions
Leadership is composed of two general kinds of behaviors:
- Task behaviors facilitate goal accomplishments: They help group members to achieve their objectives.
- Relationship Behaviors help subordinates feel comfortable with themselves, with each other, and with the situation in which they find themselves.
When task and relationship behaviors are treated as independently orientations,
leaders are seen as being able to be oriented toward both production and employees at the same time.
The Leadership Grid (Managerial Grid)
- first appeared in the early 1960s
- model has been used extensively in organizational training and development
- designed to explain how leaders help organizations to reach their purposes through two factors: concern for PRODUCTION, concern for PEOPLE
Concern for PRODUCTION
- how a leader is concerned with achieving organizational task.
- involves a wide range of activities including attention to policy decisions, new product development, process issues, workload, sales volume, etc.
Concern for PEOPLE
- how a leader attends to the people in the organization who are trying to achieve its goals.
- concern includes building organizational commitment and trust, promoting the personal worth of employees, providing good working conditions, maintaining a fair salary structure, and promoting good social relations
The Leadership (Managerial) Grid
joins concerns for production and concern for people in a model that has two intersecting axes.
- Horizontal axis represents the leader's concern for results, - Vertical axis represents the leader's concern for people.
- 9 point scale (1 = minimum concern and 9 = maximum concern)
- portrays 5 major leadership styles:
1. authority-compliance (9, 1)
2. country-club management (1,9)
3. impoverished management (1,1)
4. middle-of-the-road management (5,5)
5. team management (9,9)
Authority Compliance (9,1)
- places heavy emphasis on task and job requirements, less emphasis on people
- people are only tools for getting the job done.
- communicating with subordinates is only for the purpose of giving instructions about the task.
- style = results driven
- leader is often seen as controlling, demanding, hard driving, and overpowering
Country-Club Management (1,9)
-represents low concern for task accomplishment coupled with a high concern for interpersonal relationships.
- deemphasizing production, 1,9 leaders stress the attitudes and feelings of people, making sure the personal and social needs of followers are met.
- try to create a positive climate by being agreeable, eager to help, comforting, and uncontroversial.
Impoverished Management (1,1)
- representative of a leader who is unconcerned with both the task and interpersonal relationships
- goes through the motions of being a leader but acts uninvolved and withdrawn
- often has little contact with followers and could be described as indifferent, noncommittal, resigned, and apathetic
Middle-of-the-Road Management (5,5)
- leaders who are compromisers, who have an intermediate concern for the task and an intermediate concern for the people who do the task
- find balance between taking people into account and still emphasizing the work requirements
- compromising style gives up some of the push for production and some of the attention to employee needs
- avoids conflict and emphasizes moderate levels of production and interpersonal relationships
- often described as one who is expedient, prefers the middle ground, soft pedals disagreement, and swallows convictions in the interest of "progress"
Team Management (9,9)
- places strong emphasis on both tasks and interpersonal relationships
- promotes a high degree of participation and teamwork in the organization and satisfies a basic need in employees to be involved and committed to their work
- some phrases to describe: stimulates participation, acts determined, gets issues into the open, makes priorities clear, follows through, behaves open-mindedly, enjoys working
Besides the 5 major styles of the Leadership (Managerial) Grid, there are two other styles that incorporate multiple aspects of the grid
- leader who uses both Country Club and Authority-Compliance styles but does not integrate the two.
- "benevolent dictator" who acts graciously but does so for the purpose of goad accomplishment.
- treats people as if they were dissociated from the task
- "fatherly" or "motherly" toward their followers; regard the organization as a "family"
- make most of the key decisions
- reward loyalty and obedience while punishing noncompliance
- leader who uses any combination of the basic five styles for the purpose of personal advancement
- an opportunistic leader will adapt and shift his or her leadership style to gain personal advantage, putting self-interest ahead of other priorities
- performance and effort of the leader are to realize personal gain
phrases used to describe this style of leadership include: ruthless, cunning, and self-motivated, while some could argue that these types of leaders are adaptable and strategic
Leaders usually have 2 styles
1. Dominant Grid Style: used in most situations
2. Backup Style: what the leader reverts to when under pressure, when the usual way of accomplishing things does not work.
STRENGTHS of Style Approach
1. Marked a major shift in the general focus of leadership research. Broadened the scope of leadership research to include the behaviors of leaders and what they do in various situations. No longer focus of leadership on the personal characteristics of leaders: It was expanded to include what leaders did and how they acted.
2. Wide range of studies on leadership style validates and gives credibility to the basic tenets of the approach. Substantiated by a multitude of research studies that offer a viable approach to understanding the leadership process.
3. Conceptual level: researchers from the style approach have ascertained that a leader's style consists primarily of two major types of behaviors task and relationship. Whenvever leadership occurs, the leader is acting out both task and relationship behaviors; the key to being an effective leader often rests on how the leader balances these two behaviors. Together they form the core of the leadership process.
4. Heuristic: provides us with a broad conceptual map that is worthwhile to use in our attempts to understand the complexities of leadership. Leaders can learn a lot about themselves and the taks and relationship dimensions. Leaders can access their actions and determine how they may want to change to improve their leadership style.
CRITICISMS of the Style Approach
1. Research on styles has not adequately show how leaders' styles are associated with performance outcomes. Researchers have not been able to establish a consistent link between task and relationship behaviors and outcomes such as morale, job satisfaction, and productivity. Only strong finding about leadership styles is that leaders who are considerate have followers who are more satisfied.
2. Approach has failed to find a universal style of leadership that could be effective in almost every situation. Overarching goal of researchers studying the style approach appeared to be the identification of a universal set of leadership behaviors that would consistently result in effective outcomes.
3. Implies that the most effective leadership style is the high-high style (ex: high task and high relationship). Some researchers suggested that high-high managers are most effective, but may not be the same in all situations. Certain situations may require different leadership styles; some may be complex and require high-task behavior, and others may be simple and require supportive behavior.
APPLICATION for Style Approach
- provides a mirror for managers that is helpful in answering the frequently asked questions. "How am i doing as a leader?"
- leadership training and development programs throughout the country are structured along the lines of the style approach. Most include giving managers questionnaires that assess in some way their task and relationship behaviors toward subordinates. Participants use thse assessments to improve their overall leadership styles.
- Grid seminars are about increasing productivity, improving morale, and gaining employee commitment. At grid seminars, self-assessments, small-group experiences, and candid critiques allow managers to learn how to define effective leadership, how to manage for optimal results, and how to identify and change ineffective leadership behaviors.
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