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ART 2000 - Exam 2 (expanded)
Terms in this set (81)
What are the usual contents of cave paintings?
animal and hunting scenes.
Why do we see layers of cave paintings?
because they would paint over them.
What did they use to make cave painting?
they used natural minerals/clay to draw and paint.
What do the hands in the cave represent?
Speculate that they wanted to leave their mark on the world; represent the people that drew the drawings, almost like a signature, claiming ownership
What are the four educated guesses about the functions of making cave painting?
narrative - represent what were around them
decorative - decorate the area, where they lived
ceremonial - protect themselves with beliefs/rituals
instructional - teach other how to hunt/ learn about animals
How did the cavemen see in the dark?
they used torches of wood and lamps of animal fat to see in the dark.
What are the two main rivers in this region?
Tigris and Euphrates Rivers
Name the four major cultures of the Mesopotamian civilization
Sumerians, Akkadians, Assyrians, and Babylonians.
What is a ziggurat?
a Mesopotamian stepped (pyramid shape) temple built by Sumerians
What was were ziggurats made out of?
made from baked and unbaked mud bricks.
What were the functions of the ziggurat?
It was built to honor the Moon Goddess Nanna and believed to connect heaven and earth. Also used as a religious, social, and political center
Which civilization invented Cuneiform?
Looking at the Standard of Ur (War Side), what can we say about their treatment of war prisoners?
They were very brutal - there are pictures depicting chariots running over the bodies of the enemies and shaming the enemies by forcing them to take off their clothing and keep walking
What was Cuneiform made out of?
They were symbols carved into clay tablets that later dried.
What can we say about the Akkadian mask beyond the formal analysis
Mask says that Akkadian were talented metal workers. Cracked/stolen jewels today, maybe by tomb robbers.
Shows writing and rewriting of history - cracking the mask may have reflected the people defacing the previous ruler.
Ishtar Gate is an artistic example of which culture?
Why is the gate named Ishtar?
named after their goddess of love and war Ishtar.
What is hieroglyphics?
Egyptian writing made up of pictures and symbols.
What did they bury in the pyramids?
Pharaohs with treasures, food, and weapons.
What was their core idea behind burials in pyramids?
They believed their pharaohs equal to gods and would make sure they had what they needed to rule in the afterlife.
What is twisted perspective or composite view?
showing a part of a figure in profile and another part shown in frontal.
Where else do we find twisted perspective/composite view drawings?
seen in the Egyptian art and cave paintings.
What was Parthenon (Greek) made out of?
What kind of proportion did they use to build Parthenon?
What is the archaic style of sculpture?
male figures are nude while female figures are clothed. oldest; stiff standing figures, frontal
What is the classical style of sculpture?
both sexes are nude; use of contrapposto (an asymmetrical arrangement of the human figure). evolution for sculptures, using Golden Ratio, to make proportionate and idealistic bodies
What is the hellenistic style of sculpture?
expressive physically and facially. most advanced stage, very lifelike figures with twists and turns;
What is contrapposto? What does it allow in a sculptured figure?
an asymmetrical arrangement of the human figure in which the line of the arms and shoulders contrasts with while balancing those of the hips and legs.
-allows rest in figure
What are the two vase making techniques?
Vases could be made with red figures or black figures.
In which one the vase figures appear more three-dimensional?
The red figures are more 3D while black figures look more like silhouettes.
Two examples of vase making techniques that we have seen in class, what were they used
Amphora Vases use to carry water, wine, and olive oil. Krater used to mix wine with water
What is an acropolis?
a citadel up on a hill above the rest of the city.
Name two important buildings on Acropolis in Athens.
Parthenon and Erechtheon.
Who was the Parthenon dedicated to?
What were the functions of a acropolis?
place where citizens retreated in case of attack. Holy place for worship and place to save themselves (for their gods/goddesses).
What artistic features are the jewels of the Erechtheo?
Six sculptured maiden sculptures as pillars.
What is the agora? What did the Greeks do at the agora (mention at least two things)
-A public open space used for for athletic, artistic, spiritual, and political life of the city.
-Used for assemblies and markets.
What is the Doric Order of architecture?
oldest, simplest, thickest, has a capital & shaft
What is the Ionic Order of architecture?
slender with a volute capital; similar to scrolls
What is the Corinthian Order of architecture?
most ornate, represents acantus leaves as capital
Was the Pantheon dedicated to only one god/goddess?
No; dedicated to all the Gods of pagan Rome.
What are the special features of the Pantheon that were different from the Greeks?
Dome(opening in the center of the dome), coffer(design in dome ceiling), colored marble on floor
Greek marble figures/portraits focused on ________
the idealized human body and mostly portrayed nude gods and mythological heroes.
Late Roman marble figures/portraits focused on ________
emperors and civic leaders, who were usually portrayed clothed in togas or wearing armor. Naturalism, elders, children
What did they do at the Roman city center?
hub/town square for economic, political, religious, and social activities
What is the name of the Roman city center?
What did they build to glorify their leaders that were usually built after winning wars?
How did they adorn arches?
with relief sculptures depicting the emperor's victories and achievements with latin words to tell the stories.
(Pompeii: Last Day / Herculaneum: The Other Pompei) What happened in those places and when?
An active volcano, Mt. Vesuvius, erupted and preserved both cities in A.D. 79
(Pompeii: Last Day / Herculaneum: The Other Pompei) What types of business (economic) were they involved in for livelihood
winery, gladiator fights, brothels, slavery, foolery
(Pompeii: Last Day / Herculaneum: The Other Pompei)
What types of food did they eat in Herculaneum?
Seafood , veggies
(Pompeii: Last Day / Herculaneum: The Other Pompei)
How do we know about what they ate?
Both cities were by the ocean so the people ate a lot of fish. There were fish bones found in the ruins.
(Pompeii: Last Day / Herculaneum: The Other Pompei)
What medium of art did they use to show different kinds of food they ate?
(Pompeii: Last Day / Herculaneum: The Other Pompei) Name two gods/goddess of Pompeii and Herculaneum that were found during the excavations?
jupiter and venus
How was Byzantium or Constantinople important?
Byzantium became Constantinople by Emperor Constatine. He moved the capital of the Roman Empire from Rome to the East because the empire became very weak in West.
-was the wealthiest and largest city in Europe.
-became the economic and cultural hub of the east and the center of both Greek classics and Christian ideals
-era encouraged arts including music, drama, and art (mostly focused on religion)
What is a continuous narrative? Give an example
type of narrative that illustrates multiple scenes of a narrative within a single frame. Multiple actions and scenes are portrayed in a single visual field without any dividers.
ex. the parting of the red sea exodus cont. narrative where Moses appears twice
What is a catacomb and what were the functions of it?
-an underground construction/cemetery where Jews and Christians bury their dead and Christians gather to pray there in order to avoid persecution by the Romans
What is a Byzantine icon?
small religious images; most common was to portray Jesus and Mary
What is iconoclasm?
the destruction of religious images as heretical; the doctrine of iconoclasts
What is a iconoclast?
a (person) destroyer of religious images
How did the Second Commandment influence the destruction of images?
forbids to worship idols because it creates a barrier from a direct relationship with God.
What were the Medieval manuscripts made out of and who made them?
made out of animal skin/parchment by religious leaders, artists, scribes, and metal workers collaborated to make them.
What is the main difference between Christian and Islamic manuscripts?
Christian manuscripts have text and images, Islamic manuscripts have only text and no images.
What are the main features of Gothic architecture?
rib vault flying buttress, stained glass decorations in windows, circular rose windows
What were the conceptual importance of light and height in relation to these structures?
-Importance on height meant to symbolize reaching for the heavens and furthering one's connection with God.
-Importance on light presented their longing to be in the presence of God. Also, light is seen as knowledge (spiritual and general)
What is the Renaissance?
14th century-17th century. The rebirth of Greek and Roman art, architecture, literature, philosophy, math and more. Education and literacy rates increased due to the invention of printing press. People had renewed interest in the Classics, because of some archeological findings at the time. Studied nude figures like the Greeks and the Romans did. The Reformation (Separation of the Protestants from Catholic Church) and the Counter Reformation (advertise of Catholic church to re-invite devotees through artworks in church) were significant events at that time
What is the humanist philosophy of the Renaissance that came from the classics
Renaissance Humanism; "Man is the measure of All things"; Humanity and individual human individuality; intellectual and physical achievements
Who were the art patrons in the Southern Renaissance and how did they affect art making of the time?
Roman Catholic Church and wealthy families were art patrons in the South and determined what art pieces were; poor people had no contribution.
What are the three main artistic divisions during this time?
early, high, late Renaissance
Among many classical scholars, name four important figures in Raphael's "School of Athens" that were discussed in class
Aristotle, Plato, Heraclitus , and Raphael.
In Jan van Eyck's "Arnolfini Portrait" --what do the fruit, dog, pair of shoes, prayer beads and the "passion" images in the mirror, man by the window and pregnant woman by the bed may refer to?
What kind of analysis that would be?
Fruits symbolize fertility
Dog symbolizes lust
Shoes refers to a stable relationship
The prayer beads represents the couples piety
The mirror represents "God's all-seeing eye"
Man by the window represents that he is part of the world
Pregnant women by the bed refers her role as a mother
The artist's statement of "Jan van Eyck was here in 1434" at the back wall may remind one of what kind of stylistic technique in art
The stylistic technique of memento mori. Also, it was his way of signing his work.
What are the characteristics of the Mannerist style? What are the possible reasons for this artistic development?
-Imagination, different sizing/proportions, sense of discomfort, lack of space
-People felt unrest because of the invasion of Rome which left a political/social scenario. In the artistic world, artists had thought they had done everything, they didn't think there was anything left to do because of Leonardo, Michelangelo, Rafael.
What do the term "caravaggesque or caravaggisti" refer to in art history?
Represented classical figures through contemporary faces and context.
in Caravaggio's case, he represented biblical figures and stories
What is tenebrism?
Stark contrast of light and dark in a painting; (good vs bad)
What is impasto?
The process or technique of laying on paint or pigment thickly so that it stands out from a surface. This creates texture on the painting.
What are the main differences between the Southern and Northern Renaissance?
Northern: oil painting, mainly religion based&moral messages (BUT NOT DIRECTLY with Christian figures), common people, simple still life
Southern: fresco/tempera paintings, biblical stories. Catholic church, Italian wealthy family
Describe several similarities and differences between Donatello's, Michelangelo's and Bernini's "David."
SIMILAR: They tell the same story of killing Goliath DIFFERENT: Donatello shows after the killing (looks younger, has a smirk, bronze)
Michelangelo shows before the killing(looks older, nude, marble)
Bernini shows during the moment of killing Goliath. (lots of physical and facial expression)
What is the Renaissance artistic period?
Proportionate, static, classical, stationary.
What is the Mannerism artistic period?
Disproportionate, imaginative, explorative, distortion
What is the Baroque artistic period?
Dynamism, emotional, dramatic
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