Former of the 1949 CPP to demand "self-government now." Due to strikes and boycotts with some violence against the British administration in Ghana (otherwise known as the Gold Coast) he was imprisoned. In 1957, after the British granted freedom to Ghana this man became the leader. The independence of Ghana was the first step towards independence for all blacks in Africa. This man not only ruled Ghana, but he was also seen as the leader of the Pan-African movement. Tried to establish economic ties with countries outside of Africa through organizations and to form a nucleus for Pan-African unity on a continental scale. He was overthrown by military junta in 1966, after the Ghanaian constitution became more authoritarian (enmity of rival African leaders, alienated other Ghanaians who were concerned with economic development.) 373, 376
Convention People's Party (CPP)
A party created by Kwame Nkrumah (later became president of Ghana) in 1949 to demand "self-government now." Used moderately violent boycotts and strikes to attack the British administration, and draw attention to their goals.373
A group of people from Nigeria who were determined to establish their own country of Biafra in 1967. A civil war followed these requests. 374
Republic of Biafra
The name given to a region that seceded from Nigeria led by the Igbo. After a brutal civil war, it was reincorporated three years after secession in 1970. 374
Nigeria 1967, the Igbos tried to establish their own nation. The civil war followed, it was characterized by bloody violence and extreme hardship; thousands died of starvation. The war dragged on until 1970, when the war weary and often starving ___ surrendered and the military regime of Colonel Yakuba Gowon reunited the nation. It showed that African leaders recognized the difficulties posed by national boundaries that often grouped together under one government different and sometimes antagonistic ethnic, linguistic, or religious communities. 374
Leaders of the Kenyan African Union which organized in 1952 a national resistance group to fight for "land and freedom." In an effort to control the Mau Mau Uprising, the British imprisoned him, and once they though that they had reached military defeat they started to negotiate with him. Kenya acquired independence in 1963 due to this man. He emerged the leader of a single party state. He managed to unify various Kenyan groups into a fairly cohesive nation with his charisma and political maneuvering. The government survived until his death in 1978. 377-378
Kenyan African Union (KAU)
A Union demanding for the inequities with the white salary and standard of living compared to the blacks deterioration. Lead by Jomo Kenyatta and created in 1952 in Kenya. Demanded that they be eradicated and black people be given a larger proportion of the important government positions. The movement became more radical as it went forward. 377-378
Mau Mau Uprising
A national resistance group fought for "land and freedom". Many of the attacks were on the African collaborators with the British and white settlers. The organization centered mainly in the countryside. Guerrilla warfare lasted from 1952-1956. The acts of violence and assassinations were widely exaggerated by the Western media. British imprisoned Kenyatta in an effort to destroy this group. After the war, negotiations began and Kenyan independence was gained. 378
Dominated by Dutch Afrikaners, who during World War II reinforced the philosophy of racial superiority. They openly favored the Nazi regime, and enacted a system of strict racial segregation endorsed and enforced by the government. Afrikaners restricted "colored" peoples civil rights and political powers. There was a complete segregation in housing, education, religion, and government. Afrikaners justified their movement by saying they were anti-Communist. Whites got the highest paying jobs, and blacks were forced to do manual labor. Nonwhite leaders began to appear, using nonviolent movement (like in India) they organized movements like the Sharpeville Massacre. In 1966 Bantustan was created for black reservations. 379-381
African National Congress (ANC)
An organization dedicated to obtaining equal voting and civil rights for black inhabitants of South Africa. Eventually brought equality. 380
An event in 1960, the police opened fired on the unarmed crowd, killing dozens and wounding many. Hundred of blacks migrated to the police station without their passbook asking the police to arrest them. They tried to flood the system, but in the end it caused chaos. Condemning the ANC as revolutionary, the white South African government declared the organization illegal in 1960. 380
Leader of the ANC who tried to evade arrest, but was ultimately caught and tried under the Suppression of Communism Act. Mandela was not apart of a Marxist group, but he was sent to Robin's Island for life imprisonment. Released by F.W. Klerk in 1990 and became president of the new South Africa. 491
The most serious violent massacre happened in this city in 1976, when schoolchildren demonstrated against the use of Afrikaans as the major language of instruction. The students were also protesting the Bantu Education Act, which instituted inferior education programs for the majority black population. The violence spread to the rest of the country and indicated that many black Africans had become radicalized. The South African government responded with a new series of repressive tactics, typified by the death of Steven Biko.488
Man known for as a student nationalist spokesperson. Following the Soweto violence he died of brain injuries inflicted by police beatings in 1977. 488
This man was known as a major critic of apartheid, he won the Nobel Prize for Peace. He called for economic boycotts of white businesses and divestment by Western interests as a means of undercutting the apartheid regime and forcing changes. 488
F.W. de Klerk
President of Afrikaner South Africa. He released Nelson Mandela from prison in 1990. He also removed some bans on political groups, and had open negotiations with the ANC. He struggled to find a compromise with Mandela, because this man refused all changes to the Apartheid system so that the Afrikaners would not take him out of office. Finally resigned and let Mandela take his position. 488
Mid-1970's to early 1980's where the military killed and disappeared thousands of alleged subversives in Argentina. 338
A strategy for economic development that calls for free markets, balanced budgets, privatization, free trade, and minimal government intervention in the economy.
Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI)
A Mexican political party that wielded power in the country—under a succession of names—for more than 70 years. It is a member of the Socialist International and supported NAFTA.
Student Uprising and the government did not tolerate it because it was right before the Olympics. Put a bad image on the country. Had a brigade (wore one white glove) fire down on the students. Snipers supposedly shot first. More than 300 died, but was covered up. Government says only 4 died, hid other files.
No other country shows more postwar power in Latin America than Argentina under the rule of_______ from 1946-1955. With its most wealthy European-descended population, Argentina in 1945 was wealthiest, most urbanized, industrialized, and literate country in Latin America.
Hoping to shore up their flagging popularity, the generals of Argentina embarked on a military adventure that backfired and destroyed their regime. Since 1820, Great Britain had control over the Islas Malvinas and renamed them the _________ Islands. In 1982 the Argentine forces took the islands but the nationalist fervor in Britain's Thatcher government organized a major task force, smashed the Argentine navy and air force and retook the islands. 438
In Chile, a plurality of Chilean voters elected the Marxist __________ as president. His election galvanized his right-wing opponents in industry and the military, who launched a concerted campaign to undermine his administration. They were joined by the CIA and US State Department, which saw the _____ regime as a direct threat to US hemisphere interests. In September 1973 the military under Augusto Pinochet stormed the presidential palace, killed _______, and seized state power. 438
In September 1973 the military under _______ stormed the presidential palace, killed Allende, and seized state power. After a brief transitional period, ______ ruled Chile with an iron fist from 1974 to 1989. Forging tight alliances with the Catholic church, big business, and the U.S. government, his regime imprisoned and killed thousands of opponents in a brutal dirty war similar to Brazilian and Argentine militaries during the same period. He privatized major industries and slashed public subsidies and services. Charged with engineering these reforms were the "Chicago Boys," free market economists trained mainly at the University of Chicago. There was steep inflation and severe economic contraction in early 1970's with robust growth later in the decade. Yielding to a popular discontent, ______ stepped down in early 1989. 438-439
The _____ dictatorship in Nicaragua and its fight against the Sandinista movement were emblematic of broader trends in Central America during these years. The unbridled avarice and corruption of _____ and his cronies became especially apparent in the wake of the December 1972 Managua earthquake, which killed tens of thousands and destroyed much of the capital city, as the ruling clique pocketed millions of dollars in foreign aid that poured into the country. The Sandinista regime overthrew the _______regime in 1972 after the _____ dictatorship was emboldened by middle and upper class alienation. A divided elite, ______ intransigence, and the human rights policies of the Carter administration provided the Sandinista with a strategic political opening and ousted ______. 439
Named after the nationalist guerrilla cheiftan who fought the U.S. Marines in 1930s, and lead by Carlos Fonseca, the _________ articulated a coherent political program that emphasized opposition to the Somoza dictatorship, grassroots democracy, political nonalignment (neither US nor Soviet), a mixed economy, and social justice for the impoverished majority. It had a widespread population support, and after a long bloody struggle the ______ ousted the Somoza regime and seized power. When Ronald Regan became president of the US the Regan regime played the __________ regime as a direct extension of the Soviet's "evil empire" and an abiding threat to democracy and freedom throughout the hemisphere. The US created the Contras which then mined Nicaraguan harbors and imposed a trade embargo. As the Contra war and the US trade embargo destroyed much of the economy, the __________ Regime grew increasingly centralized and authoritarian, while its initiatives in health care, education, housing, social security, and related arenas became bogged down by hyperinflation and growing share of national budget devoted to defense. In 1990 elections were held where a coalition of anti-__________ political parties defeated the beleaguered ruling regime, effectively ending the revolutionary experiment.439-440
In Central Latin America, the US funded, organized, and trained counterrevolutionary, or _____, forces in Honduras, composed mainly of former Somocista National Guardsmen; mined Nicaraguan harbors, imposed a devastating trade embargo; and launched an extensive perception management program at home. The _____ war and the US trade embargo destroyed much of the economy. 439
In the 1950's Cuba was controlled by the dictator __________ an ally of the US government and a friend of US businesses ranging from sugar refining to gambling. In return, the US backed the ______ regime. In 1959 Fidel Castro overthrew _____ after years of guerrilla warfare. Which then caused the United States to have a sugar boycott on Cuba, when the Soviets came in and took over the US's share. 321-322
Cuban revolutionary leader who overthrew the corrupt regime of the dictator Fulgencio Batista in 1959 and soon after established a Communist state. He was prime minister of Cuba from 1959 to 1976 and has been president of the government and First Secretary of the Communist Party since 1976.
Bay of Pigs
Intending to overthrow Castro and return Cuba to the U.S. sphere of influence, in April of 1961 President Kennedy oversaw this disastrous invasion; a scheme inherited from his predecessor. The Cubans easily defeated this ill-conceived effort, and a month later, on May Day 1961, Castro proclaimed "I am a Marxist-Leninist." 339
Cuban Missile Crisis
On May Day 1961, Castro proclaimed "I am a Marxist-Leninist." From that time upward of 85% of Cuban economy was controlled by the government. What began as a nationalist revolution had become, within two years, a cold war battle between superpowers, which reached its most dangerous point in this event. In October 1962, American U-2s discovered the missile site in Cuba, some almost operational and, it was later revealed, protected by tactical nuclear weapons. The Kennedy administration sprang into action and insisted that Soviet missiles and bombers in Cuba must go. The Soviet Union would be given the opportunity to remove them voluntarily. If the Soviet Union did not, the United States would destroy the missiles by air strike or invasion. If such an action meant a collision with the USSR, the United States would go to war. The military command sent some SAC bombers into the air and put others on 15-minute alert, while placing ICBMs in a preliminary state of readiness to fire. The command also moved army units into position in the Southeast and reinforced Guantanamo Bay. Pressuring the USSR to withdraw missiles and bombers, Kennedy imposed a "quarantine," a peacetime missiles from reaching Cuba, Latin American nations, at a meeting of the Organization of American States, supported the blockade. On October 22, Kennedy appeared on television to demand that the USSR "halt and eliminate this clandestine and provactive threat to world peace." The decision now lay with Moscow. In the end Khrushchev told Soviet merchant ships to turn around to avoid conflict with the US Navy, also the USSR agreed to remove it's nuclear bombs from Turkey. 322
When Castro decided to export his revolution to other parts of Latin America and the world, he sent Revolutionary war hero _____. ______ went to Bolivia where he attempted to put into practice his "foco" theory of revolution, which held that a small group of dedicated revolutionaries could ignite a social explosion among the rural poor. The theory proved wrong transforming ______ image into a revolutionary martyr and icon. The Soviets reacted to this failed attempt by cutting back on Cuba's oil allotment. 340