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syg unit 3
Terms in this set (69)
The social institution that organizes a society's production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services is called
According to the video lecture, institutions have a two-fold structure. Which one is more important:
Postindustrialism is based on:
service work and computer technology.
An ideal capitalist economy has three distinct features: (1) private ownership of property, (2) pursuit of personal profit, and (3)
competition and consumer choice.
From a socialist point of view, the common capitalist practice of giving workers as little in pay and benefits as possible to boost company earnings is
putting profits before people
In comparison to capitalism, socialism
emphasizes freedom from basic want.
According to the video lecture, institutions have a two-fold function. Which one is the side-effect of the intended function(s)?
Regarding voting behavior, wealthier people are more likely to vote than people with low income.
What is it called when one company or corporation controls an entire economic area?
For industrial workers in the U. S., the postindustrial economy has brought
The social institution that distributes power, sets a society's goals, and makes decisions is
According to the video lecture, the military is part of which institution?
What is the name of the political system that gives power to the people as a whole?
According to the video lecture, which institution passes on the skills people need in order to survive in society?
According to the video lecture, what is the most important part of the definition of "institution?"
It meets a basic need of society.
Welfare capitalism is a political/economic system that combines a market-based economy with very extensive social benefit programs, such as free medical care for all citizens.
The NRA (National Rifle Association) spends a lot of money and lobbying effort to influence politicians. This is an example of:
C. Wright Mills claimed that the power elite head up three major sectors of U.S. society, including the economy, government, and the
Which of the following is true about terrorism and terrorists?
Terrorists use violence against both military and civilian targets.
A political system that has a complete concentration of power and allows little or no organized opposition is a:
A police officer issuing you a speeding ticket is an example of:
Legitimate power (authority)
____________ is the ability to draw followers based on an individual's characteristics, such as extraordinary personality or personal characteristics that inspire devotion.
Among all the modern, industrial and post-industrial nations, the U.S. is one of the top three in highest tax rates and welfare benefits.
The are several major gasoline companies in the U.S. However, many people feel that they all sort of work together to raise the price of gasoline on a regular basis. If so, this would be an example of:
According to the video lecture, what is the most important institution today?
Historically, women have been taught to see marriage as the key to a happy life. The ___________ approach, however, points to the fact that marriage often means a lifetime of unpaid domestic labor and little or no power in regard to decisions within the family.
The __________ approach shows that courtship typically brings together people who offer the same level of advantages.
The United States tends to be very ________ with marriage occurring between people with the same social characteristics.
Approximately, what percent of divorced people remarry?
According to the video lecture, the divorce rate in the U.S. today is about:
Which of the following is true about education in the U.S.?
The majority of people in the U.S. do not believe that everyone has the chance to get an education consistent with personal ability and talent.
School funding is primarily based on local property taxes. This likely has the following effect(s):
schools in rich neighborhoods provide better schooling than schools in poorer areas.
When societies use trained teachers to pass on specialized knowledge that adults will need for their jobs, schooling is serving the function of
When schools attempt to mold a diverse and multicultural population into one society that shares basic norms and values, it is serving the function of
social integration/cultural assimilation
The structural-functional perspective on education says the purpose of education includes:
passing on knowledge to the next generation.
Jane Elliott conducted an blue-eyed/brown-eyed experiment in her fourth grade class to show the students the harmful effects of
stereotypes and self-fulfilling prophecy
Which do critics claim is a problem with standardized testing?
Standardized tests are culturally biased toward the dominant culture.
Teachers may "teach to the test" instead of truly educating the students.
Standardized tests unfairly place disadvantaged students into vocational tracks and thus lower future incomes.
Which of the following is a latent function of education?
School networks are a valuable career resource
Assigning students to different types of educational programs, such as college preparatory classes, general education, and vocational education, is called tracking.
Children from poorer families (thanks to grants and loans) are more likely to go to college than children from rich families.
According to the video lecture, the majority of single moms raising children are unwed moms (rather than divorced moms).
According to the video lecture, approximately what is the percentage of U.S. children under 18 who live with two parents (whether they are biological parents or step parents)?
The percent of couples who are cohabiting right now is ___ and the percent who have ever cohabited is ___.
6-10% and 50-60%
According to the video lecture, the majority of two parent families raising children today are step families.
The United States in the only modern, high-income, Western nation that still has the death penalty.
___________ is a policy that allows a convicted offender to avoid going to jail if they follow conditions imposed by the court, including supervision; whereas __________ is when you get out of prison early and finish your sentence outside of jail but under strict supervision.
Probation - parole
When looking at age, the people who are most likely to be arrested for violent crime and property crime in the U.S. are between the ages of
The majority of people in inner-city neighborhoods have
no criminal record at all.
The official crime index does not include arrests for offenses including drunk driving, white-collar crime, and cheating on income taxes. If the definition of the crime index was broadened to include these crimes, what would happen to the link between race and crime rates?
The proportion of White criminals would rise dramatically.
Most street crime is committed by
_________ is violation of the norms and __________ is when someone breaks a law.
Deviance - Crime
What theory says that we learn to deviate or conform to norms from the various people and/or groups we spend time with and whether these people and/or groups encourage deviant behavior?
Differential Association Theory
According to __________ Theory, what is labeled deviance and what is controlled and/or punished represents the interests of the wealthy and powerful.
Bank fraud and embezzlement are types of __________ crime.
Which of the following is not considered to be a possible reason for imprisonment in the U.S.?
Rehabilitation, reform the criminal so that he will become a productive member of society
Deterrence, punish the criminal so that he will not want to do wrongful acts
Retribution, punish the criminal harshly so that he suffers as much as the suffering he caused
Societal protection, get the criminal off the streets and in prison so that he cannot commit more crime
None of the above because all the answers are reasons for imprisonment
None of the above because all the answers are reasons for imprisonment
Demography is the scientific study of population that focuses on the size and composition of a population and studies why
people move from place to place.
In the U.S., more people live in the:
The world's population is approximately:
7 - 8 billion
Stage 1 of the demographic transition theory is characterized by
high birth rates and death rates.
According to the video lecture, the rapid growth of developing nations is caused by:
high birth rates and low death rates.
The crude birth rate is the U.S. is approximately
The doubling time of poor countries is approximately _____ years.
According to the video lecture, the majority of the recent and future increase in the population of the U.S. is due to:
The concept of global warming refers to:
a rise in earth's temperature due to an increasing amount of carbon dioxide in the upper atmosphere.
a controversy as to whether the temperature rise is due to natural causes or to human-made causes.
a controversy as to whether the temperature is actually rising in the long run or just part of a cycle of increase and decrease
All of the above.
all of the above
According to the video lecture, the world population is doubling in about:
A handy rule of thumb for estimating a nation or region's growth is to divide the number 70 by the population growth rate; this yields the doubling time in years.
According to the video lecture, the fastest growing parts of the world are located in:
The crude birth rate is the number of live births per year for every 1000 people in the population.
The Growth Rate of the U.S. is about 2-3% a year
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The steps below describe a research on children without brothers or sisters (“only” children). Put steps a-g in order of how they would occur according to the steps in the research process. a. A researcher reads many articles about theory and research on the intelligence level of only children. b. From previous research and existing theory, a researcher states that only children appear to be more intelligent than children with siblings. c. A researcher collects data on only children from a high school in a large city. d. A researcher writes a report giving evidence that only children are more intelligent than children with brothers or sisters. e. A researcher decides to study the intelligence level of only children. f. A researcher classifies and processes the data collected in order to test a hypothesis. g. A researcher decides on the data needed to test a hypothesis, the methods for data collection, and the techniques for data analysis.
Religious faiths can be analyzed by two major social characteristics. What are those characteristics?
What is the most important master status you have held? Has the master status helped or hindered you? What master status would you like to achieve? Why?
Physical strength is not as important for males today as it was in past times. The nature of work has changed so that not as many jobs require stamina or physical strength. What impact do you think this devaluing of muscle strength has on society? List five attitudes or values that could be affected.
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