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plt edu 5 curriculum, direct instruct, indirect etc
Terms in this set (136)
The _____ includes what children are expected to learn (the content), how children will learn it (instruction), when the material is best learned (the timing), and documentation that children have learned the stated objectives (assessment). It is a plan for what children need to learn in schools, how and when they will learn it, and ways to teach it.
_____ development is affected by cognitive ability, hearing, and gender
Refers to learning about something in general rather than learning-specific stimuls-response chains. Same as cognitive learning; a complex cognitive process.
What should teachers do in a discovery learning environment?
1. Provide examples
2. Provide access to experiences
3. Allow collaborative work
4. Provide questions to answer or possible next steps
5. Provide already worked examples to trigger
6. background knowledge
Appropriate teaching strategies that can be included in the curriculum
1. Hands on learning
4. Choice of learning exps
5. Coaching or guiding child w/ skill acqusition and use of reference materials
9, Problem Solving
a comprehensive document for each grade level that contains the general goals, objects, or outcomes that every child should meet, a seq of study for selected topics, and suggested learning activities; it can be general (developed by state curric office for use across the state) or specific (developed by a local school district or specific school). Purpose is to standardize the learning expectations using local, state, or national standards to determine what children should know and be able to do at a particular grade level.
specifies what children should learn, focuses on practices that meet those standards, and continually assesses children to see if they have met the standards; its one way to ensure that each child has the same opportunity to achieve excellence and equity;
A constructivist approach to teaching in which students are encouraged to discover principles for themselves. It encourages independent learning, inspires active engagement, and develops problem-solving and critical-thinking skills.
what learners should know and be able to do in the subject areas at specific grade levels, include the knowledge, skills, and dispositions toward learning that children need to develop;describe the knowledge and skills that students should attain, often called the "what" of "what students should know and be able to do." They indicate the ways of thinking, working, communicating, reasoning and investigating the important and enduring ideas, concepts, issues, dilemmas and knowledge essential to the discipline
show what children can do in a particular subj area or a particular developmental domain. concrete statements of how well students must learn what is set out in the content standards, often called the "be able to do" of "what students should know and be able to do"; essential in determining what children can do in particular content areas;describe the knowledge or skill that students should acquire by a particular point in their schooling, usually tied to grade or age level
key concepts, ideas, skills, and processes that are unique to the subjects of language arts, math, science, social studies, tech, the arts, health, and pe;
Developmental Domains Approach to curriculum
an approach used to organize the written curriculum; it is areas of children's development to organize the curriculum; this approach is learner centered; it teaches the WHOLE CHILD; allows children to integrate their developing knowledge, skills, abilities, and dispositions as the teacher decides what, how, &when to teach certain concepts and skills. It provides a broad view of curriculum, a balanced view of the whole child, and helps teachers match content to each childs abilities to achieve post outcomes.
Content Areas Approach to curriculum
another way to organize the written curriculum;b/c a large portion of the curriculum comes from the specialized knowledge of each content area this approach makes sense to many teachers, school boards, and curriculum developers; expert based; limiation- much of the content is difficult for children to understand; it can also lead to fragmented isolated skill development or the exclusion of other kinds of know and skills essent to childrens sucess in society;
Integrated Curriculum Approach
another approach to curriculum development; joining all parts of something together to make a whole; it joins learning in more than one develop domain, more than one content area, or across domains and content areas; the linkage is based on the study of a broad concept/theme, and on the developmental needs of the learners; has orgins in the ideas of Dewey, Kilpatrick, and Piaget; curriculum is holistic and know should be integrated and include child directed activity ; meanigful b/c children can make connect among concepts, exps, and school to what they know.
3 ways an integrated curriculum promotes childrens learning
1. Helping children connect past exp to current learning by focusing on processes and concepts in each content area and connecting them to other content areas
2. Emphasizing child actual exps/interest and their interactions with each other, w/ materials, and with ideas, and promoting active learning throu hands on exps.
3. Providing ample time for children to exp with and explore ideas that promote all aspects of childs develop as well as developing know, skills, and dipositions.
Emergent Curriculum Approach
another approach used to organize the curriculum; it considers childs interests, needs, prior know, cult bckgrnds, and quest as the core of the curriculum; it responds to childs needs & interest, involves children in teacher in planning/eval projects/learning activities, has general learning object, and doc childs learning; emphasizes childs interest; when curriculum is developed around childrens interest they are more likely to be engaged in the content to be studied; based on belief that the charateristics of the learner and way child learn=most import consideration in curriculum.
Culturally Responsive Curriculum
another way to organize the curriculum; acknowledges diversity in the class and accomodates it in the curriculum in 3 ways- 1. accepts/affirms differences 2. accomodates diff learning styles by using variety of approaches 3. uses childs cultural bckgrnds to promote pride and motivation and build posti self-esteem of oneself and others;
5 principles of a good curriculum that leads to a meaningful curriculum
1. Content worth knowing
2. Cultural Relevance
3. Clear Outcomes
4. All areas of development
5. Teachers that believe in themselves and their pract.
a currculum that is relevant to that particular group of children and considers their developmental needs/interest and the enviro/cult they live in; it promotes active learning of age app, subj area know for every child; it is comprehensive and teaches the whole child'; it is active and engaging; culturally relevent and inclusive; aligned with standards; two ways to teach it is by using thematic units and projects*
Thematic Units Approach
an approach used by ece teachers to teach meaningful curriculum; a curriculum approach that relates learning exps to key cocnepts/ideas abt a particular topic of study and last over a period of time; uses variety of relevant exps in more than one content area and are interesting to the child; help child link their learning from many diff subj area, generalize know/skills from one exp to another, and connect what they are learning to real life; takes many diff forms; it must include childs ideas/interest, previous exps, and know worth knowing.
Effective Thematic Curriculum Should Enable Children to:6
1. Build on what they already know, stimulate quest they want answered, capitalize on interest, and relate it
2. Understand basic concepts/processes from subj area
3. Learn accurate facts/info related to unit study
4. Integrate content and process from all subj areas
5. Engage in hands on activites as they inquire
6. Grow in each of developmental domains.
2nd approach used by ece teachers to teach meaningful curriculum; ___ are focused, in depth studies of something that children, in collab w/teachers, initate, direct, organize, and develop; these deep investigations can take diff forms(proj approach, emergent curricu, & long term studies); they support childs natural ways of learning, promote their thinking bc its meaningful, and spark curiosity; roots in dewey and kilpatrick; can last for day, week, month;
4 components of a thematic unit
1. Selecting a theme
2. Designing integrated learning activities
3. Selecting resources
4. Designing assessments
6 components of interdisciplinary units
2. Generating applicable topics
3. Developing an integrative framework
4. Planning instruction for each discipline
5. Designing integrative assessment
6. Recoginzes role in collaborating w/ instructional partners in instruct. planning.
As winter approaches, a teacher brings in materials, books, and learning materials about animals in winter. For two weeks, most of the activities and learning centers include concepts about hibernation, food storage, and other animal adaptations for cold weather. Which of the following is the approach used by this teacher?
Process to make sure that teachers follow all the prescribed curriculum and teach all the concepts embedded in the state and local standards
4 main areas of an instructional Objective
2.) Behavior--what? (verb that describes observable activities)
3.) Condition--How? (define material that will or will not) given a map..
4.) Degree--How much? (standard used to measure)
Using small groups that work together to maximize the level of every student's learning process; small teams, each with students of different levels of ability, use a variety of learning activities to improve their understanding of a subject. Each member of a team is responsible not only for learning what is taught but also for helping teammates learn, thus creating an atmosphere of achievement. Benefits= foster positive interdependence, teaches that everyone has strengths and weaknesses. Give students real life skills, Increase self esteem, Lead to higher levels of productivity and achievement &Create a positive classroom environment.
3 parts to a learning objective
Condition, behavior, level of performance
clear statements of what students will achieve as a result of a lesson that will be shown in an observable way.
involves integrating the content areas. Commonly, in theme or unit approaches,. It is used to provide a full, contextualized picture of an issue or topic.
whole group discussion
Used in a variety of settings, but the most common is in the discussion of an assignment. With this strategy, learning is peer-based; thus, students gain in a different perspective on the topic, while learning to respect the ideas of others;
scope vs sequence
-scope= a clearly stated set of K-12 learning objectives that reflects local, state, and national expectations;Sequence= is the order in which those objectives are taught."; Sequence is often decided by grade level, while scope is more detailed and includes the specific learning objectives which often include benchmarks; scope and Sequence is developed directly from the standards at the state level; Together a scope and sequence of learning bring order to the delivery of content, supporting the maximizing of student learning and offering sustained opportunities for learning;Scope and Sequence is the map for the curriculum.
what are the 5 instructional models used
1. Direct Instruction
2. Indirect Instruction
3. Independent " "
4. Experimental " "
5. Interactive " "
5 instructional strategies associated w/ Direct Instruction
1. Explicit Teaching
2. Drill & Practice
5. Guides for readng, listening, and viewing
6 Instruct Strategies associated with Indirect Instruction
1. Problem Solving
3. Case Studies
4. Concept Mapping
5. Reading for meaning
6. Cloze Procedures
5 Instructional Strat associated w/ independent instruction
1. Learning Contracts
2. Research Projects
3. Learning Centers
4. Computer Mediated Instruct
5. Distance Learning
6 Instructional Strat associated w Experimental/ Virtual Instruction
1. Field Trips
4. Role Play
6 Instructional Strat associated w/ Interactive Instruction
2. Cooperative Learning Groups
5. Peer Practice
describes explicit, step-by-step instruction directed by the teacher. The format advocated is demonstration, guided practice, and independent practice. Teacher-centered instruction focuses on carefully articulated lessons in which cognitive skills are broken down into small units, sequenced deliberately, and taught explicitly (fully and clearly); approach to teaching that follows a predetermined, seq pattern of instruction; repitition, correction of errors, & praise used; effective for providing information or developing step-by-step skills. This strategy also works well for introducing other teaching methods, or actively involving students in knowledge construction.
Which previous Supreme Court ruling did Brown v. Board of Education overturn?
Plessy v. Ferguson. Though the Plessy case did not directly regard education, it did espouse and indeed guarantee "separate but equal" accommodations aboard rail cars for blacks and whites. Seeing as the accommodations were indeed separate but by no means equal, Brown brought race into the classroom, but it affected the "separate but equal" doctrine everywhere.
an instructional strat used in direct instruction; A teaching method based predominantly on the modeling of knowledge and skills. A form of presentation whereby the teacher or learners show how something works or operates, or how something is done. For example, a teacher could ___ how to use a thesaurus; Following that, students practice under teacher supervision. Finally, independent practice is done to the point of proficiency
Drill & Practice
an instructional strat used in direct instruction; A form of independent study whereby, after the teacher explains a task, learners practice it; it promotes the acquisition of knowledge or skill through repetitive practice; help learners master materials at their own pace;
instructional model that takes advantage of students' interest and curiosity, often encouraging them to generate alternatives or solve problems; role of the teacher shifts from lecturer/director to that of facilitator, supporter, and resource person. The teacher arranges the learning environment, provides opportunity for student involvement, and, when appropriate, provides feedback to students while they conduct the inquiry.
instructional model that fosters development of individual student initiative, self-reliance, and self-improvement; very flexible; important that the instructor make sure that learners have the necessary skills in order to accomplish the task;
inductive, learner centred, and activity oriented instruct model; emphasis in ____ ___ is on the process of learning and not on the product. ____ learning greatly increases understanding and retention; inductive, learner centered, and activity oriented. can be viewed as a cycle consisting of five phases, all of which are necessary:experiencing (an activity occurs); sharing or publishing (reactions and observations are shared);
analyzing or processing (patterns and dynamics are determined); inferring or generalizing (principles are derived); and, applying (plans are made to use learning in new situations).
instructional model that relies heavily on discussion and sharing among participants; allows for a range of groupings and interactive methods. These may include total class discussions, small group discussions or projects;
A type of planning that presents learners with an opportunity to discover relationships and patterns that cut across subject matter is called
2 ways units can be planned?
Vertically: Emphasizing hierarchy of lesson content and task-relevant prior knowledge within a discipline.
Laterally: Emphasizing themes that integrate bodies of knowledge across disciplines to convey relationships and patterns that bind different aspects of our world together.
Before starting the preparation of a lesson plan you should: 2
1. Identify the learning outcome desired for the lesson (e.g., knowledge, application, evaluation, etc.).
2. Identify what provisions for student diversity need to be included (e.g., time limited ability grouping, peer tutoring, learning centers, specialized handouts, cooperative grouping).
The following external events can be specified in a lesson plan.
Informing the learner of the objective
Stimulating recall of prerequisite learning
Presenting the stimulus material
Eliciting the desired behavior
Assessing the behavior
an instructional strategy used in indirect instruction; tools for engaging students in research and reflective discussion; Higher order thinking is encouraged; effective devices for directing students to practically apply their skills and understandings; suitable for most curricula where students would benefit from the application of learned facts to a real world situation; useful where situations are complex and solutions are uncertain. ___can serve as the basis for a class discussion or as a project for individuals or small groups; used for abstract thinkers;bridge the gap between the very teacher centred lecture method and pure problem based learning.
instructional strat used w/ indirect instruction; provides opportunities for students to experience and acquire processes through which they can gather information about the world; Questioning is the heart of _____ learning; Students must ask relevant questions and develop ways to search for answers and generate explanations; seeking appropriate resolutions to questions and issues; important in the generation and transmission of knowledge;more focused on using and learning content as a means to develop information-processing and problem-solving skills; more student centered, with the teacher as a facilitator of learning.
an instructional strat used w/ indirect instruction; is a special form of a web diagram for exploring knowledge and gathering and sharing information; can be used to: Develop an understanding of a body of knowledge.
Explore new information and relationships, Access prior knowledge, Gather new knowledge and information, Share knowledge and information generated.
what is included in direct instruction
2. Learning Goals
3. Anticipatory set
o check for understanding
5. Guided practice/monitoring
7. Independent practice
An opportunity for each student to demonstrate grasp of new learning by working through an activity or exercise under the teacher's direct supervision. The teacher moves around the room to determine the level of mastery and to provide individual remediation as needed.
instructional strat used w/ direct instruction; involves directing student attention toward specific learning in a highly structured environment. It is teaching that is focused on producing specific learning outcomes; Topics and contents are broken down into small parts and taught individually. It involves explanation, demonstration and practice. Children are provided with guidance and structured frameworks. Topics are taught in a logical order and directed by the teacher; useful for introducing topics and specific skills. It provides guided instruction in the basic understanding of required skills, which students can then build on through practice, collaboration, repetition, hands on activities and developmental play.
____ ____ begins with setting the stage for learning, followed by a clear explanation of what to do (telling), followed by modeling of the process (showing), followed by multiple opportunities for practice (guiding) until independence is attained.
instructional strat used w/ experimental instruction; Advantages= Enjoyable, motivating activity, Element of reality is compatible with principles of constructivism, Enhances appreciation of the more subtle aspects of a concept/principle, Promotes critical thinking. promote concept attainment through experiential practice; promote the use of critical and evaluative thinking.
an independent instruction instructional strategy; provide a method of individualizing instruction and developing student responsibility. They permit individual pacing so that students may learn at the rate at which they are able to master the material; can be designed so that students function at the academic levels most suitable to them and work with resource materials containing concepts and knowledge that are appropriate to their abilities and experiences;
How to use learning contracts
1. When a student is first beginning to use learning contracts, the teacher provides learning objectives, identifies a choice of resources, and sets some basic time parameters for the project.
2. As students become more experienced with learning contracts, the teacher may choose to involve them in setting the learning objectives.
3. Learning contracts usually require that students demonstrate the new learning in some meaningful way, but students are provided choice in the selection of a method or activity.
Research projects frequently include these four steps:
determining the purpose and topic
gathering the information
organizing the information
an instructional strategy used w/ independent instruction; very effective for developing and extending language arts skills as students learn in all subject areas. While doing _____ students practice reading for specific purposes, recording information, sequencing and organizing ideas, and using language to inform others;
Computer Assisted Instruction
instruct strategy used w/ independent instruction; instruction or remediation presented on a computer; allow students to progress at their own pace and work individually or problem solve in a group;
Purposes of brainstorming
1 to focus students' attention on a particular topic
to generate a quantity of ideas
2 to teach acceptance and respect for individual differences
3 to encourage learners to take risks in sharing their ideas and opinions
4 to demonstrate to students that their knowledge and their language abilities are valued and accepted
5 to introduce the practice of idea collection prior to beginning tasks such as writing or solving problems
6. to provide an opportunity for students to share ideas and expand their existing knowledge by building on each other's contributions
Five Basic Elements of Cooperative Learning
1. Positive Interdependence
2. Face-To-Face Interaction
3. Individual Accountability
4. Social Skills
5. Group Processing
______ _____ define learning objectives in ways that allow a teacher to observe and measure changes in behavior within a specified period of time;Focus instruction on a specific goal whose outcomes can be observed; Identify the conditions under which learning can be expected to occur.
Behaviors in the psychomotor domain, from least to most complex:
The following are instructional strategies of the ______ model:
Use of advance organizers
Conceptual movement—inductive and deductive
Use of examples and nonexamples
Use of questions to guide search and discovery
Use of student ideas
Use of group discussion
What are the Three approaches for organizing content and composing advance organizers?
Six strategies for direct instruction:
Daily review and checking
Presenting and structuring new content
Guided student practice
Feedback and correctives
Weekly and monthly reviews.
When the teacher encourages students to comment on and consider the accuracy of their own and one another's responses, they are engaging in ______ _______
Indirect instruction strategies work best when teaching ______.
When a teacher presents a lesson with complex content, the lesson must be introduced with a framework or structure that organizes the content into meaningful parts even before the content is presented. To give learners a conceptual preview of content to come, the teacher could use _____ _____
Deductive reasoning skills are helpful for students because 3 things:
1. much information can be obtained by beginning with a theory and testing or experimenting with it to see how accurately it predicts events
2. generalizations can be misleading if they are not carefully tested
3. knowing that something generally occurs can alert us to watch for similar situations and act accordingly
According to constructivist theories, indirect instruction is important because knowledge results by forming rules and hypotheses about "reality" from one's own perspective. T or F
Common purposes for asking questions are:
Getting interest and attention
Diagnosing and checking
Recalling specific facts or information
Encouraging higher-level thought processes
Structuring and redirecting learning
Allowing expression of affect
____ questions ask a learner to break a problem into its component parts and to draw relationships among the parts.
Teachers should wait at least ___ seconds before asking another question, repeating the previous question, or calling on another student.
According to research on teacher practices, which outcome is not the result of increased wait time between a teacher's question and a student's response?
a. Learners' responses are more accurate
b. Learners are more certain of their answer
c. Learners volunteer more responses
d. Learners give longer answers to questions
a. Learners' responses are more accurate
What is the approximate ratio of the percentage of teacher convergent to divergent questions in the typical classroom?
80% convergent to 20% divergent
If you had to give advice to a new teacher concerning the amount of time to wait between when you ask a question and the student attempts a response, which of the following would you recommend?
a) Gage your wait time to the aptitude of the student, higher-performing learners being given less wait time than lower-performing students.
b)If after 2 or 3 seconds the student has not begun a response, follow up with a probe.
c)Wait longer than you might at first feel comfortable: at least 3 or more seconds for convergent questions and up to 15 seconds for divergent questions.
d)If after a few seconds the student has not responded, nurture the student along with warm encouragement, such as, "Come on, you can do it."
c)Wait longer than you might at first feel comfortable: at least 3 or more seconds for convergent questions and up to 15 seconds for divergent questions.
Ms. Martinez uses questioning strategies on a regular basis. She prefers that her students be required to think about their answers before responding. Ms. Martinez seldom asks questions that have a short answer. Her students are expected to express their feelings, analyze the question, and/or use generalizations and inductive thinking to answer. The type of questions she usually asks is
____ questions have the distinct quality of confronting the learner with authentic problems.
an approach to teaching and learning that actively engages students in the learning process for the purpose of acquiring outcomes at higher levels of cognitive complexity.
The reciprocal teaching sequence of activities involves:
1.Generate predictions about the content to be learned in the initial class discussion.
2. Read/listen to a portion of the text.
3. Choose a discussion leader.
4. Discussion leader summarizes text, and teacher asks other students to elaborate.
5. Teacher clarifies unresolved questions, rereading text if needed.
is an approach to learning that promotes intrinsic motivation by organizing instruction around tasks most likely to induce and support learner interest, effort, and persistence.
T or F The primary goal of assigning roles and responsibilities during cooperative learning is to facilitate the work of the group and to promote communication and sharing among its members.
The most convenient size for an effective cooperative group for most classroom objectives is between:
a). 2 to 3
b). 4 to 6
c). 7 to 9
d). about 10 to 12
b 4 to 6
In cooperative learning the range of abilities within a group, time required to reach group consensus, efficient sharing of group materials, and the time needed to complete the end product are factors to consider when deciding
a) how to distribute students according to ability.
b)how large each group should be.
c) how to divide and conquer behavior problems.
d) none of the above.
b how large each group should be.
The ____ _____ provides the learner with the prerequisite knowledge, skill, or behavior needed to benefit from the planned instruction.
What is an objective in the IEP?
all objectives must be comparable and measurable, which fit the student's individual ability and potential growth rate. These goals can always be revamped, but a good IEP at least has measurable goals, even if they go unmet.
A classroom climate can be created by: 2 things- _____ enviro and _____ enviroment
Social environment, which is related to the patterns of interaction you wish to promote in your classroom
Organizational environment, which is related to the physical or visual layout of the classroom.
_____ ____ _____ is an indirect instructional method in which the reader reads with the intent of understanding the information presented; that is, the reader interprets the material to construct meaning within the context of the text. A key part of this process is making connections between what is already known and what is new.
Reading for meaning
____ ____ can assist students in accessing and connecting previous knowledge and in promoting critical and creative thinking. It can alert the teacher to students' needs and understandings, reinforce self-esteem, and can assist with developing a positive climate in the classroom.
____ questions can be used to effectively diagnose recall and comprehension and to draw on prior learning experiences." They are "questions that tend to be convergent (i.e. they tend to focus on one topic), factual, and often beginning with "what", "where", "when", "how".; used in direct instruction
Steps of the backwards design
1. Desired Results
2. Assessment Evidence
3. Learning Plan
Strategies used when handeling incorrect answers to questions
1 prompt by clarifying the question,
2.asking the question in a different way/rephrasing the question ̧
3.prompt by asking a simpler related question/easier question ̧
4.prompt by giving a directive that leads to a correct answer ̧
5.reinforce participation and effort ̧
6 be positive; being negative shuts down the class ̧
7 try to identify some part of the answer that is correct
____ ____ provides students with the opportunity to grasp and develop concepts or skills that have just been taught to them. It is applying the knowledge to activity that encourages the students to use higher level thinking in order to show that they have learned the skills and ideas presented to them.
The Equal Education Opportunities Act
The ____ ____ ___ ___ of 1974 provides that no state shall deny equal educational opportunity to an individual on the basis of race, color, sex, or origin.
Supplemental Educational Services
____ ____ ___ is the term which No Child Left Behind uses to refer to the tutoring and extra help with schoolwork in subjects such as reading and math that children from low-income families may be eligible to receive.
A ____ _____ affects how a child processes information, and may cause a child to have trouble in reading or developing gross motor skills. They may have trouble judging the distance between themselves and objects, and have difficulties with sports that requires hand-eye coordination.
____ _____ protects the rights of the parents to be heard during the IEP process.
The ____ _____ of motivation believes that behavior is influenced by the way that people think about themselves and the environment in which they are. Included are four influences: their experiences, knowing what one's expectations are for completing a task, the factors one believes accounts for successes or failures, and ones belief about his own ability to solve problems and think critically.
This person thought that the best way to change students' behavior was to reward them for good behavior and remove rewards, or punish, inappropriate behavior.
_____ _____ are results of behavior that are not planned or controlled but the result of the behavior. When using this, teachers should teach students how to predict the consequences of their behaviors.
____ should be prompt, occur right after the event, contain encouragement for the student to do even better next time, be specific about what was positive and negative, and focus clearly on a few aspects rather than a host of different ones. It should also focus on facts, not on the teachers opinion.
In a classroom that follows the _____ _____, teachers would be willing to question their own beliefs and values, able to listen to students' experiences, ideas, and especially feelings and open to both positive and negative feedback. Students are responsible for their own learning, provide experiences and feelings, and learn to self-evaluate.
Behavior and conduct of a person is influenced by his social environment as well as personal factors; Bandura; a basic concept of social learning theory; the interaction of cognition, environmental events, and our own behavior which creates the human experience; behavior is controlled or determined by the individual, through cognitive processes, and by the environment, through external social stimulus events; three factors influence behavior - the environment, the individual, and the behavior itself
A technique in which the listener paraphrases the other person's message and directly mentions the feelings that underlie the message.
Three factors that inﬂuence modeling are:
1. the model's characteristics,
2 the observer's characteristics,
3. and the behavior's reward consequences
A form of communication in which the listener paraphrases what the speaker has said, to check for understanding of content and emotional tone.
Strategies for supporting students in articulating their ideas
Verbal and non-verbal prompting
Reflective listening statements
Methods for encouraging students' higher levels of thinking Guiding students to:
Determine relevancy and validity of information
Design alternate solutions
learning that occurs as a function of observing, retaining and replicating behavior observed in others; bandura; a key concept in social learning theory
behavior that can be noted through one of the senses (seen, heard, tasted, smelled, etc.) Usually described in action words.
to foster the needs of overachieving and/or gifted students; options that allow students to probe deeper and independently into curriculum, such as taking summer programs, doing simulations and games, and creating independent projects; To provide students with activities/opportunities/information that increases their level of knowledge/awareness regarding a particular concept/topic/subject area/activity.
Teachers primarily utilize reteaching, specified corrections, and learning centers to provide _______.
Peer tutoring, cooperative teams, and academic games all involve _______ or mixed ability-level groups.
Conceptual frameworks that describe how information is absorbed, processed, and retained during learning. Cognitive, emotional, and environmental influences, as well as prior experience, all play a part in how understanding, or a world view, is acquired or changed, and knowledge and skills retained.
When is remediation appropriate?
Appropriate when you see the student is not grasping the concept no matter what the situation (i.e exceptionalities, culture, reading difficulties, self esteem, etc.) and require extra attention.
When is enrichment appropriate?
Appropriate when the students easily grasp the concept and students are exposed to a greater understanding by engaging in different activities.
Difficulties using expressive and receptive langusage, delays in pragmatics and problems with fluency, voice, and articulation
changes in the delivery of instruction, type of student performance, or method of assessment which do not significantly change the content or conceptual difficulty.
Variety of resources for locating, adapting, or creating enrichment and remediation activities. (7)
Resources that support student learning
-Computers, Internet and other electronic sources
-Library collection (books, magazines, pamphlets, reference works)
-Artifacts, models, manipulatives
-Guest speakers and community members
What is interdisciplinary instruction?
teaching involves a conscious effort to apply knowledge, principles, and/or values to more than one academic discipline simultaneously. The disciplines may be related through a central theme, issue, problem, process, topic, or experience. The organizational structure is a thematic unit.
A strategy which requires a learner to compare and contrast groups or categories that contain concept-relevant features with groups or categories that do not contain concept-relevant features.
How do culture and gender affect communication?
by knowing the student's background, socioeconomic lifestyle, home life and value when planning instruction and with communication _______ and ________ are affected
the procedure of breaking down an academic task into its component parts for the purpose of instruction; major feature of direct instruction
Compare and Contrast
implicitly call for higher-order thinking in which one actively uses one's knowledge of two items; high probability of enhancing student achievement (Development of Complex Cognitive Process)
ability to use patter recognition, comparing, contrasting, and identifying, and anticipate likely events in the future (Development of Complex Cognitive Process)
a cooperative discussion strategy that entails three stages of student action: think, pair, share
approaches involving joint intellectual effort by students; working in groups of 2 or more, mutually searching for understanding, solutions, or meanings, or creating a product; most activities focus on students' exploration or application of the material
requires students to use previously learned information in a new way; engage in higher-level cognitive processes
teacher uses ____ to convey prejudices, feelings, and emotions; messages can be modified by varying the tone, the loudness/softness, by using high/low pitch, and by changing the quality of speech
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