7th Gr - Hist CH 16
The Age of Exploration
Terms in this set (42)
Henry the Navigator
Prince of Portugal, he helped promote exploration by Portuguese sailors, created a school to teach navigation skills, and paid sailors to explore the seas.
Italian sailor supported by the rulers of Spain, he reached the Americas in 1492.
Portuguese explorer who sailed for Spain, his crew was the first to circumnavigate the globe.
to go all the way around
English sailor, he was sent to the Americas to steal gold and silver from Spanish ships.
a large fleet of Spanish ships that was defeated by England in
the exchange of plants, animals, and ideas between the New World and the Old World
a large farm
Bartolome de las Casas
A priest who said that the Spanish should try to convert American Indians to Christianity by showing them love, gentleness and kindness.
the belief that some people are better than others because of racial traits, such as skin color
a system in which a government controls all economic activity in a country and its colonies to make the government stronger and richer
balance of trade
the relationship of goods imported to goods exported
a system in which people work at home to make a product
a collection of maps
an economic system in which individuals and private businesses run most industries
an economic system in which individuals decide what goods and services they will buy
main, most important
What were two important improvements in shipbuilding that the Portuguese made?
They created Caravels that used triangular sails, that allowed ships to sail against the wind. They replaced oars with rudders which improved steering.
Why were spices so expensive in Europe?
Italy and Egypt controlled the trade route to Asia and charge other countries high prices for the spices the got in Asia
Who directed the first voyage to circumnavigate the globe?
King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain
What might have happened if Christopher Columbus had decided to look to the east to find a route to Asia?
He reached the Bahamas (islands off the east coast of North America. He thought this was Asia.
Where did the English and French look for a route to Asia?
The English and French looked for a trade route to Asia by trying to find a waterway through North America.
How did the defeat of the Spanish Armada shift power in Europe?
Spain was mad at England for stealing gold from their ships. Spain sent the Spanish Armada (navy) to attack England. The English beat the Spanish sinking many ships. Others sank on their way back to Spain. Altogether, the Spanish lost more than half their ships, so the Spanish no longer ruled the seas.
In what ways did the European worldview change in the 1400s and 1500s?
They learned much about geography.
They learned that the Americas and Asia separate continents. With improved maps, Europe would see the whole world.
They no longer believed ships burned crossing the equator. Since Europe dominated the seas:
>They were able to control resources in new lands
>Gain great wealth
>Spread European influence around the world.
Vasco da Gama
Portuguese sailor, he sailed around Africa to reach India.
Where did peanuts and maze become important crops?
Why was the exchange of plants and animals between the Old World and the New World called the Columbian Exchange?
Because it was trade between Europe and the New World which "Columbus" discovered.
What technologies that Europeans introduced to the Americas?
How did contact with Europeans change life in the New World?
Animals (horses and oxen) were used to carry silver from mines.
People worked on sugarcane plantations
People made textiles
Indians were treated poorly as slaves in mines and farms
European diseases killed Indians so their population shrunk
A new social order based on racism started:
Middle: American Indian and African slaves
Bottom: Mixed Races
How was plantation agriculture related to racism in the Americas?
Indians and Africans who had darker skin than Europeans worked the fields as slaves.
Judge whether the ideas of Bartolome de las Casas brought positive negative changes to life in the Americas
This was a priest that protested against the poor treatment of Indians saying that the Spanish should try to convert the Indians to Christianity by showing them love, gentleness, and kindness. This prompted the creation of laws protecting Indians.
How were colonies important to a country with the economic policy of mercantilism?
The free labor of slaves, and the resources and wealth of the colonies made their European rulers more wealthy and powerful. Especially if the colonies were only allowed to trade with their ruling country.
Was mercantilism a good policy for Europe's colonies? Why or why not?
No, because the colonies people and resources were exploited. Yes, because in return, the colonies had protection from further invasion.
What colonies were active in the slave trade?
Why did power shift to northern Europe?
Northern Europe developed new trade routes to increase trade and the banking industry to increase income. As new trade routes increased trade and demand for their goods, they found better ways to make and move goods. Also industries shifted from government control to individuals and businesses (also known as Capitalism) which created prices based on demand for goods (market economy). This system of a market driven economy and capitalism were so successful that they became the model for the entire western world.
In what kind of economic system do individuals and private businesses run most industries?
How do supply and demand work in a market economy?
The amount of goods and their prices are based on demand. When demand is high, more items are produced. Pricing will change also.
What are the four factors that contributed to the development of capitalism in England.
England had new trade routes to India, China and the American Colonies they also had new maps for navigation.
What changes to trade and economic systems were brought about during the Age of Exploration?
Voyages of discovery found new trade routes and trade partners
New wealth was found and claimed in new lands.
New trade and colonies concentrated wealth in Europe.
Innovations, discoveries and exchange of goods and ideas brought new economic policies such as mercantilism and capitalism.
What discoveries were made by European explorers in Africa, Asia and The Americas?
> sweet potatoes
> bananas, sugar cane
> maize (corn)
> Black potatoes
> chili peppers
What animals were exchanged between the Old World and the New World?
cows, goats, sheep, pigs, horses, chickens, came to the Americas.
rats and turkeys went to Europe.
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