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History of Life- Lecture A (10.08)
Terms in this set (50)
4 to 2.5 GA
- Prokaryotes have no nucleus and are rudimentary
-Metabolism by fermentation, producing oxygen and alcohol
-Form unicellular organisms
What must be eliminated about prokaryotes to avoid intoxication?
- Eukaryotes have a nucleus and organelles
-Mitochondria- organelles where biochemical processes of respiration and energy production occur
-Strive in aerobic environment-use respiration for metabolism
What is the cellular unit of plants, animals,fungi and protists
Species are organized by how many domains?
Three: the Bacteria, Archaea,Eukarya
How many species kingdoms are there? and what are they
6, and under the Bacteria Domain
Under the Archea Domain
Under the Eukarya Domain
Forms of life are organized into groupings according to their genetic and evolutionary called
When was the earliest fossil found in and how did it exist
Archean life (3.55 Billion years ago) and from chemosynthesis, biosynthesis, and development of machinery needed for metabolism, and mechanisms for reproduction,( DNA,RNA
the synthesis of organic compounds by bacteria or other organisms using energy derived from reactions involving inorganic chemicals, typically in the absence of sunlight.
the production of complex molecules within living organisms or cells
What is the Prokaryotic world
Early life was prokaryotic and anaerobic. Use fermentation for metabolism, germinating CO2,water, and alcohol
What era dominated the world for 2 billion years
The Prokaryotic world or Archean
What are some of the most ancient fossils(proxy for macrobiotic life) found 3.55 billion years old
Stromatolites-Microscopic photosynthesizing prokaryotes
What are some other fossils in the Archean time
layered structures made of thin sheets of calcium carbonate precipitated by certain bacteria.
What did stromatolites tell us and how
Provided us with evidence of early life and photosynthesis,
because they were layered sedimentary rocks that were originally formed by the growth of cyanobacteria, a single-celled photosynthesizing microbe
Great Oxygenation Event and its implications
Roughly by the beginning of the Proterozoic where oxygen buildup was in enough quantity to oxygenate the atmosphere.
ozone layer which protects us from UV radiation
When did the stratospheric ozone form
600 Ma which allowed for organisms to flourish and survive
What's the banded iron formation
Formed during an atmospheric change from O2 poor to O2 rich
Proterozoic Life (2.5 Ga to 542Ma)
Slow Release of oxygen for 2 billion years which is a toxic for prokaryotes without specialized enzymes
-Atmosphere enriched with oxygen-banded-iron formations
-Late development of eukaryotes (1.4 billion years ago, Mid Proterozoic) and adoption of respiration.
-Formed stratospheric ozone
How did the transition operate from prokaryotic life to complex animals but what do we understand?
600 million years ago we found the first animal fossils in the rock records.
Of Jelly-Like Animals without external armor found in Ediacaran bay, Australia
What is the Cambrian Period or Explosion or Radiation
Explosion of innovation in the biotic world and creation of the most species 542 million years ago
All were submarine animals
In order to survive on land
1. Have Structural support
2. Internal aquatic environment
Water conservation devices and mechanism for gas
3. Moist environment for reproduction
What did the Cambrian explosion introduce us to and starts
Internal and External Skeletons, Phanerozoic life
What is a key example of the earliest fossil in Cambrian life
Trilobite-are one of the earliest known anthropoids (precambrian)
What marked the beginning to the Phanerozoic?
The Cambrian explosion
What are the three eras of the Phanerozoic ?
Paleozoic, Mesozoic, Cenozoic
What plant evolution occurred in the Paleozoic?
In the Cambrian and Ordovician periods- Algae dominated aquatic environments
-Silurian (440 to 420 Mya):first land plant; first vascular plants with woody stems evolved.(seedless) that relied on swamps for reproduction and life
-Devonian- 1st seed plants appear but are still bound to aquatic regions and the development of vascular plants came from this
-Carboniferous- latter part of this period is where gymnosperms appear naked seed plant
Early part is where seedless plants are growing exponentially and form 99% of all our coal deposits
What is an example of a eukaryote that conquered the land during the Silurian?
First vascular plants are ------ and they rely on a sustained------- for reproduction.
seedless, moist environment for
When was the Carboniferous period?
360-300 MYr ago,
Plants from Carboniferous swamps are the origin of 99% of current
Where do fossil fuels come from?
Formed hundreds of millions of years ago in cold, high latitude swamps.
Plants lived and died, deposited in bottom of high
latitude swamps, forming
How does peat turn Ito fossil fuels?
Buried under water and mud.
Trapped energy of dead plants.
Heat & pressure turned remains into coal.
Photosynthesis traps and Burning of fossil fuels releases
What was the rate if coal formation in the Carboniferous period and what percent of coal we burn today is from this period?
6oo time the background rate and 90
(naked seed plants)-are plants with seeds unprotected by an ovary or fruit, i.e., pollen.
e.g, conifers, cycads, and ginkgo.
In the late Carboniferous period, gymnosperms (naked-seed plants) appeared with
male pollen and female cell, and were freed from the swamps
The first land invertebrates appeared in the
Silurian which were scorpions
What is the ancient ancestor to vertebrates, a have cartilaginous rod running along the back of the body
How did reptiles escape the swamps?
By developing impermeable(water tight) skin and amniotic eggs in the carboniferous (300 Ma)
Reptiles could spread in ____ before amphibians
through Pangea in terrestrial places
From early arthropods came insects, the first to set foot on land. What made them resilient?
Their rudimentary respiratory system and an open vascular system
What is the permian-triassic extinction?
The Great Dying extinction-affects all life on earth and killed about 95% of all species living at the time
Which make sit the most MAJOR extinction event
What are some reasons for the permian-triassic extinction?
MAssice volcanism such as that of the Siberian Traps(LIP) because it induced climate change through the release of greenhouse gases(CO2)
Mass extictions were often caused on coincided with the pouring of
flood basalt in LIPs
What is LIPs
Large Igneous Provinces e.g. Kalkarindji, the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province(CAMP)
What marks the end of the Paleozoic Era?
Great dying extinction
What followed the Permian extinction?
Radiation of dinosaurs and mammals in the triassic period of the Mesozoic era of the Phanerozoic time
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