53 terms

This set covers A Beka Book Physics Chapter 16: "Waves" (pages 236-251).

transverse waves

term for waves that travel along a rope

perpendicular

In a transverse waves, the displacement and wave motion are ______ to each other.

wave pulse

term for a moving disturbance caused by jerking one end of a rope up slightly and then down again

wave

term for two opposite pulses in succession

wave train

term for a series of waves

crest

term for the highest point of displacement of a wave

equilibrium

term for the position of no net change

elastic medium

term for any medium that, when distorted, tends to recover its orginal arrangement of particles

elastic

In general, a wave can travel through any ____ medium.

energy

In general, a wave pulse or wave transports ____ rather than matter.

simple harmonic motion

term for oscillation due to a restorative force that is proportional to the displacement from a central, or equilibrium, position

trough

term for the lowest point of displacement of a wave

sinusoidal

The waveform generated by a harmonic oscillator is _____; that is, it is identical in form to the graph of the equation y = sin θ

period

term for a wave train in which the same wave form appears at regular intervals along the path of the train

frequency

term for the number of waves that pass a given point per unit time in any periodic wave train

period

term for the time required for a single wave to pass a given point

speed

term for a wave train's linear advance per unit time

crest

term for a peak of a wave

wavelength

term for the distance from one crest to the next, or from one trough to the next, or from any point on a wave to the corresponding point on the next wave

one-dimensional wave

term for a wave that follows a straight line, such as one that moves along a rope

interface

term for the boundary between water and air to which a wave is confined

two-dimensional wave

term for a wave that widens but does not deepen

three-dimensional wave

term for a wave that travels outward in all directions away from the source

a water wave

example of a two-dimensional wave

sound

example of a three-dimensional wave

circular wave

term for the type of wave that is created when a stone is dropped into a still pond

wavefront

term for a circle drawn through all points having the same displacement in the same circular wave

ray

term for an arrow indicating the direction of wave motion

straight wave

term for a wave with a circular wavefront that has very little curvature

spherical wave

term for a wave that travels three-dimensionally outward from a source

plane wave

term for a wave with a spherical wavefront that has very little curvature

compression pulse

term for a pulse that travels in the direction of compression

rarefaction pulse

term for a pulse that travels in the direction that a spring is stretched

medium

term for particles that carry energy

normal

term for the line perpendicular to a surface

angle of incidence

term for the angle between the incoming direction of a wave and the normal of the barrier

reflection

term for the turning back of wave motion at an interface between media

law of reflection

law that says that the angle of incidence and the angle of reflection are equal

echo

term for a sound that is heard later than sound directly from the source

sonar

term for the use of sound waves to judge distances under water or to locate submerged objects

refraction

term for the change in direction after two- or three-dimensional waves pass obliquely in to a region where they either speed up or slow down

diffraction

term for the spreading out of a wave after it passes through a narrow opening

principle of superposition

the principle that states that when two or more waves are traveling simultaneously through the same point in a medium, the displacement of any particle at that point is the algebraic sum of the displacements that would be caused by the waves separately

composite wave train

term for the wave train produced by superposition of different wave trains

constructive interference

term for greater displacement as a result of superposition

destructive interference

term for smaller displacement as a result of superposition

complete

If the net displacement of a particle under the competing influence of two or more pulses is zero, the effect is called _____ destructive interference.

node

term for any point where the medium remains undisturbed because of wave interference

antinode

term for any point where the medium moves with the combined energy of two wave trains

loop

term for the portion of a wave between any two consecutive nodes

envelope of oscillation

term for the outline of maximum displacement

standing wave train

term for the oscillation of a wave with nodes and antinodes caused by wave reflection

standing wave

term for the motion of a single loop