Chapter 11 Agriculture
Unit V. Agricultural and Rural Land Use - Supplemental Vocabulary and Concepts
Terms in this set (86)
A group's system of economic production, depends on the relationship between environment and technology. In non-industrial societies, it will usually be based on food production.
Commercial agriculture characterized by integration of different steps in the food processing industry, usually through ownership by large corporations
process whereby the farm has moved from being the centerpiece of agricultural production to become one part of an integrated string of vertically organized industrial processes including production, storage, processing, distribution, marketing and retailing
The land that we farm on and what we choose to put where on our fields. Effects how much yield one gets from their plants.
Agricultural Location Model
An attempt to explain the pattern of agricultural land use in terms of accessibility, costs, distance, and prices.
Where and how agriculture began; hearths
The deliberate effort to modify a portion of Earth's surface through the cultivation of crops and the raising of livestock for sustenance or economic gain
genetic modification of an animal such that it is rendered more amenable to human control
Fish farming for the raising and harvesting of food produce; rearing aquatic animals or cultivating aquatic plants for food
The revolution of biotechnology and the use of it in societies,, genetic engineering of plants adn animals with the potential to greatly exceed the productivity improvements of the Green Revolution
Precise science that involves altering the genetic strands of agricultural products to increase productivity
government-owned farms and employed large numbers of workers; all crops distributed by the government, as in a communist state
Agriculture undertaken primarily to generate products for sale off the farm.
Intensive Commercial Agriculture
any kind of agriculture activity that involves effective and efficient use of labor on small plots of land to maximize crop yield
Extensive Commercial Agriculture
A crop or livestock system in which land quality or extent is more important than capital or labor inputs in determining output
an agreement between farmers and processing and/or marketing firms for the production, supply, and purchase of ag products by way of legal agreement.
The practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil
the regions in which large amounts of agriculture take place
An agricultural activity involving the raising of livestock, most commonly cows and goats, for dairy products such as milk, cheese, and butter.
Debt-for Nature Swap
Agreement in which a certain amount of foreign debt is canceled in exchange for local currency investments that will improve natural resource management or protect certain areas in the debtor country from harmful development.
The process of a feature or trend from on place to another over time
Harvesting twice a year from the same field
Primary Economic Activity
economic activity concerned with the direct extraction of natural resources from the environment-- such as mining, fishing, lumbering, and especially agriculture
Secondary Economic Activity
economic activity involving the processing of raw materials and their transformation into finished industrial products; the manufacturing sector
Tertiary Economic Activity
economic activity associated with the provision fo services (transportation, banking, retailing, education, routine, office-based jobs)
Quaternary Economic Activity
service sector industires concerned with the collection, processing, and manipuation of information and capital (finance, administration, insurance, legal services)
Quinary Economic Activity
service sector industries that require a high level of specialized knowledge skill (scientific research, high-level management)
Lands owned and worked by groups of mexican indians; working lands comunal farms
The introduction of manmade chemicals and practices that, at times, have drastic effects on native soil and vegetation.
Chemicals used on plants that do not harm the plants, but kill pests and have negative repercussions on other species who ingest the chemicals.
The wearing away of surface soil by water and wind; occurs in nature, but is sometimes sped up by humans
when fertile land turns into desert caused by overgrazing and drought
Extensive Subsistence Agriculture
consists of any agricultural economy in which the crops and/or animals are used nearly exclusively for local or family consumption on large areas of land and minimal labor input per acre
A form of subsistence agriculture in which people shift activity from one field to another; each field is used for crops for relatively few years and left fallow for a relatively long period.
a farming method involving the cutting of trees, then burning them to provide ash-enriched soil for the planting of crops
"Cornfield" a sytem of agriculture used in mesoamerica that relies on crop rotation and the planting of multple crops in a single field
cleared field, used in shifting cultivation
the raising of livestock for food by moving herds from place to place to find pasture and water
A type of agricultural activity based on nomadic animal husbandry or the raising of livestock to provide food, clothing, and shelter.
businesses that take mineral resources from the Earth.
During war, higher demand farmers bought land. Then demand goes down, overproduction, no money to pay off loans. Dust Bowl: prices go down, costs go up
working the land as an occupation or way of life
Farms that specialize in cattle or hogs and may have thousands of head livestock, these farms can create large amounts of waste runoff, air pollution, and groundwater contamination
First Agricultural Revolution
dating back 10,000 years, the First Agricultural Revolution achieved plant domestication and animal domestication
the act of someone who fishes as a diversion
After harvesting, commerical grain is sent to the market area, where it is sold to a manufactuer who makes a product withthe grain. The product is then sold to a wholesaler, who sells it to a grocery store, where it can be purchased (commercial farming process)
The planting, growing, and harvesting of trees
consumer driven agriculture integrated on an international scale
rapid diffusion of new agricultural technology, especially new high-yield seeds and fertilizers.
The time of year when it is warm enough for plants to grow
Hunting and Gathering
The killing of wild animals and fish as well as the gathering of fruits, roots, nuts, and other plants for sustenance.
Intensive Subsistence Agriculture
In which farmers must expend a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasible yield from a parcel of land.
The raising of different crops mixed together in the same field, particularly common in shifting agriculture
the process of breaking up large landholdings to attain a more balanced land distribution among farmers; redistributing land
the raising of domesticated animals for the produciton of meat and byproducts (leather, wool)
specialized farming that occurs only in areas where the dry summer climate prevails (grapes, olives, figs, citrus, fruits, dates, et al0
(fossil fuel) natural resources containing hydrocarbons, which are not derived from animal or plant sources
the removal of nonrenewable resources from the land
Nontraditional Agricultural Exports
Contrasting new export crops, such as sugar and coffee- that have become increasingly important in areas of Mexico, Central America, Colombia, and Chile, replacing grain production and other exports.
An agricultural economy found in communist nations in which the government controls both agricultural production and distribution.
genetic modification of a plant such that its reproductive success depends on human intervention
Production system based on a large estate owned by an individual, family, or corporation and organized to produce a cash crop. Almost all plantations were established within the tropics; in recent decades, many have been divided into smaller holdings or reorganized as cooperatives
minerals that can be used and replaced over a relatively short time period; ex: trees, beans, bananas, sugar, tea
resources that cannot be replaced in a short amount of time, people will use them up before they can be replaced by nature
settlements where the inhabitants are chiefly involved in primary economic activities; usually lower in total population and density than an urban settlement
characterized by a lower density of population and the wide spacing of individual homesteads.
a compact closely packed settlement sharply demarcated from adjoining farmland
a community of people smaller than a town
Geographer from the University of California at Bed defined the concept of cultural landscape as the fundamental un graphical analysis. This landscape results from interaction betwee and the physical environment. Sauer argued that virtually no land escaped alteration by human activities.
Second Agricultural Revolution
tools and equipment were modified, methods of soil preparation, fertilization, crop care, and harvesting improved the general organization of agriculture made more efficient
Workers concentrate on producing those goods and services for which they have a competitive advantage.
Can be stored and used throughout the year
In American commercial grain agriculture, a farm on which no one lives; planting and harvesting is done by hired migratory crews.
Longlot Survey System
distinct regional approach to land surveying found in the Canadian Maritimes, parts of Quebec, Luisiana, and Texas whereby land is divided into narrow parcels stretching back from rivers, roads, or canals
Metes and Bounds System
A system of land surveying east of the Appalachian Mountains. It is a system that relies on descriptions of land ownership and natural features such as streams or trees. Because of the imprecise nature of metes and bounds surveying, the U.S. Land Office Survey abandoned the technique in favor of the rectangular survey system.
Township and Range System
a rectangular land division scheme designed by Thomas Jefferson to disperse settlers evenly across farmlands of the US interior
Highest rate at which a renewable resource can be used indefinitely without reducing its available supply
Third Agricultural Revolution
Currently in progress, its principal orientation is the development of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO's)
The replacement of human labor with machines or technology to increase production
farming with synthetic fertilizers, herbicides, fungicides, and pesticides to increase yield of land
adding value to agricultural products through a range of treatments—such as processing, canning, refining, packing, and packaging—that occur off the farm and before they reach the market
"Tragedy of the Commons"
situation in which people acting individually and in their own interest use up commonly available but limited resources, creating disaster for the entire community
The seasonal migration of livestock between mountains and lowland pastures
Commercial gardening and fruit and vegetable farming, are grown for sale rather than for growers own use
Von Thunen Model
Explains the location of agricultureal activities in a commercial, profit-making economy. A process of spatial competition allocates various farming activities into rings around a central market city, with profit-earning capability the determining force in how far a crop locates from the market