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Music 101 Midterm Vocab
Terms in this set (77)
Italian for "in the manner of the chapel", music is group or solo singing without instrumental accompaniment, or a piece intended to be performed in this way.
Absolute music is music that is not explicitly "about" anything; in contrast to program music, it is non-representational
theory of musical aesthetics, widely accepted by late Baroque theorists and composers, that embraced the proposition that music is capable of arousing a variety of specific emotions within the listener; Emotional state such as joy, anger, love, sorrow
A vocal number for solo singer and orchestra, generally in an opera, cantata, or oratorio
da capo aria
standard form for Baroque Italian opera, A B A form
German composer and musician of the Baroque period. He is known for instrumental compositions such as the Art of Fugue, the Brandenburg Concertos, and the Goldberg Variations, and for vocal music such as the St Matthew Passion and the Mass in B minor.
1600-1750; An artistic style of the seventeenth century characterized by complex forms, bold ornamentation, and contrasting elements
The continuo is a bass part (the lowest part in polyphonic music) that is always linked to a series of chords. These chords are played by a harpsichord, organ, or lute, as support for the important melodies in the other instruments.
a motive or phrase in the bass that is repeated again and again
a piece of moderate length for voices and instruments, Bach wrote over 200
(Italian, 'song') (1) Sixteenth-century Italian GENRE, an instrumental work adapted from a CHANSON or composed in a similar style. (2) In the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, an instrumental work in several contrasting sections, of which the first and some of the others are in IMITATIVE COUNTERPOINT.
a male singer who was castrated before puberty and retains a soprano or alto voice
SATB, group of singers
congregational hymn of the German Lutheran church
group of singers; may also include dancers or actors
This texture of composing requires that large and small groups of instruments alternately play sections of the music in contrasting styles.
a musical composition for a solo instrument accompanied by an orchestra, especially one conceived on a relatively large scale.
Composition for several instrumental soloists and small orchestra; common in late baroque music.
Catholic Church's attempt to stop the protestant movement and to strengthen the Catholic Church
a group of people who perform instrumental or vocal music
A medieval dance that is one of the earliest surviving forms of instrumental music
An element found in music that is a digression from the main structure of the composition. It is a passage that is not a part of the main theme or groups of a composition, but is an ornamental or constructive section added to the main elements of the composition.
the initial presentation of the thematic material of a musical composition, movement, or section
From the Baroque period on, the system whereby all chords have a specific interrelation and function in relation to the tonic
Polyphonic form popular in the Baroque era in which one or more themes are developed by imitative counterpoint.
A Renaissance court dance in triple meter
Popular English Baroque dance type, a standard movement of the Baroque suite, in a lively compound meter.
A monophonic, unaccompanied style of liturgical singing that takes its name from Pope Gregory the Great
a short theme, usually in the bass, which is constantly repeated as the other parts of the music vary.
Hildegard of Bingen
Abbess of a religious house in Western Germany; one of first important women composesrs and contributor to Gregorian chant; had visions and was mystic and prophet to kings, popes, emperors, priests
Early Baroque keyboard instrument in which the strings are plucked by quills instead of being struck with hammers like the piano.
texture with principal melody and accompanying harmony
literally "little book," it is the text of the cantata
a pattern of prayer or worship
a plucked stringed musical instrument popular in the 16th and 17th centuries
a harp used by ancient Greeks for accompaniment
Renaissance secular work originating in Italy for voices, with or without instruments, set to a short, lyric love poem; also popular in England.
handwritten sources of music
The mass, a form of sacred musical composition, is a choral composition that sets the invariable portions of the Eucharistic liturgy to music
Roman Catholic church texts that remain the same from day to day throughout most of the year: Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, and Agnus Dei
those portions of the RC mass that are unique to a certain day or service.
Poet-composers of the Middle Ages in Germany
French origin, simple triple meter, moderate tempo
alternative tonalities (scales) that can be derived from the familiar major scale by starting on a different scale tone
a musical texture involving only a single line of music with no accompaniment
a short piece of sacred choral music, typically polyphonic and unaccompanied.
a self-contained section of a larger piece, such as a symphony or concerto grosso
a drama set to music
A term for the serious, heroic opera of the Baroque period in Italy
a creative work
a keyboard instrument of one or more pipe divisions or other means for producing tones, each played with its own keyboard, played either with the hands on a keyboard or with the feet using pedals
a musical composition for voices and orchestra based on a religious text (opera on a religious subject), cantatas that present the events of Jesus' life in dramatic form
Earliest kind of polyphonic music, which developed from the custom of adding voices above a plainchant; they first ran parallel to it at the interval of a fifth or fourth and later moved more freely
Note or notes added to the original melodic line for embellishment and added interest
a slow, 16th century court dance in duple meter
Unaccompanied, monophonic music, without fixed rhythm or meter, such as Gregorian chant
Music with two or more melodies blended together.
an introduction; that which comes before or leads off
musical declamation of the kind usual in the narrative and dialogue parts of opera and oratorio, sung in the rhythm of ordinary speech with many words on the same note.
A religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches.
The orchestral material at the beginning of a concerto grosso, etc., which always returns later in the piece
focuses on contrast between two musical ideas, or groups of ideas—one belonging to the orchestra and the other to the soloist. The orchestral material (the ritornello) tends to be solid and forceful, the solo material faster and more brilliant.
a minimum of three voices sing exactly the same melody at the unison, but with each voice beginning at different times so that different parts of the melody coincide in the different voices, but nevertheless fit harmoniously together
A Baroque dance in slow triple meter, with a secondary accent on the second beat
the restatement of a motif or longer melodic passage at a higher or lower pitch in the same voice
a concerto in which an orchestra and a single performer in turn present and develop the musical material in the spirit of harmonious competition
instrumental genre in several movements for soloist or small ensemble
usually a recognizable melody, upon which part or all of a composition is based
a virtuoso piece common during the Baroque Period, written in free style with many scales and rapid passages
Principle of organization around a tonic, or home, pitch, based on a major or minor scale.
a melodic figure or phrase that is the basis for a composition or a section of a composition
A rapid alternation between two adjacent notes
Common instrumental genre during the baroque period, a sonata for two treble instruments (usually violins) above a basso continuo. A performance featured four or more players if more than one was used for the continuo part.
A medieval poet and musician who traveled from place to place, entertaining people with songs of courtly love
A form in which a single melodic unit is repeated with harmonic, rhythmic, dynamic, or timbral changes
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