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Terms in this set (65)
Mass society theory
the idea that the media are corrupting influences that undermine the social order and that "average" people are defenseless against their influence
Magic Bullet Theory
a theory that explains the effects of media as if its contents simply entered directly into the consumer who is powerless to resist
a theory designed to describe and explain all aspects of a given phenomenon
Limited Effects Theories
individual and social characteristics that led audience members to be (or not to be) influenced by media; media influence limited by individual differences and personal relationships
Two-Step Flow theory
idea that media influence is limited by opinion leaders and what they pass on to the opinion followers
Has been rethought since Lazarfeld's time
argues that when confronted by new or conflicting information people experience a kind of mental discomfort, a dissonance
people expose themselves to, remember best and longest, and reinterpret messages that are consistent with their preexisting attitudes and beliefs
theory that positive and negative reinforcers motivate a person to behave in certain ways
Uses and Gratifications Approach
the idea that media don't do things TO people; people do things WITH media
Media may not tell us what to think but media certainly tell us what to think about
Basis of medias infludence resides in the relationship between the larger social system, the media's role in that system, and the audience relationships to the media
Selective Exposure (Selective Attention)
Selective Exposure: you choose the filters you recieve your info from, the media that share the opnions you do
Selective attention: process certain stimuli while ignoring others
Processing, storing, and retrieving of information that we have already selected, organized, and interpreted.
the phenomenon that people often pay the most attention to things they already agree with and interpret them according to their own predispositions
Social Cognitive Theory
theoretical perspective that focuses on how people learn by observing others and how they eventually assume control over their own behavior
in social construction of reality, collections of meanings people have assigned to some phenomenon or situation
Social construction of reality
theory argues that people who share a culture also share an ongoing correspondence of meaning.
Symbols of Signs
Things generally known by a culture (Stop sign)
Signs, in social construction of reality, may mean wealth or some other status.
EX: cadillac and mercedes are signs for wealth and success.
learning by observing others
ads that are "too" much; makes us want avoid the ad
I-285 effect: seeing everyone drive 75-80 makes you go that fast even though limit is 55
the idea that people are not simply passive recipients of media messages; they respond to content based on their personal background, interests, and interpersonal relationships
virtual worlds game
Game brings you into a virtual world
Most mobile gaming takes place in the form of casual games-classic games such as poker cribbage and solitare. table games such as checkers and pool,
Easy for mobile devices.
online games that are used to promote a brand, usually appearing on that brand's website
primarily online games supported an idea rather than a product., they promote action, learning or a higher message
Anything that interferes with, distorts, or slows down the transmission of information
Year the video game industry crashed, and result
1983, market was flooded, investors lost faith
Video games were dead, no future
Rebirth happened with different systems.
Who creates this message?
Multiple voices and interepreticed in multiple ways, The ability of a sign or symbol (most often a word) to have more than one meaning. ex: right means to turn right and you are correct)
EX: watch the same movie, interpret it in different ways
What created techniques are used to attract my attention?
How might different people understand this message differently?
What values, lifestyles and point of view are represented in or ommited from this message?
Why is this message being sent?
Transmittion of a message from a source to a reciever
Communication occuring between two or a few people
Comm can be seen as
An ongoing and recipricol process, all participants are working actively to create meaning by encoding and decoding messages
A message is first encoded, transformed into an understandable system of symbols and signs
EX: speaking, writing, printing, filming a TV program
The signs and symbols are then interpreted
EX: Listening, reading, watching the TV program
Process of creating shared meaning b/w the mass media and their audience
What is involved in the comm process?
1. Sender has a thought/idea
2. Sender encodes that thought into a message
3. Message is transmitted through a channel
4. Reciever decodes message
5. Reciever internalized message
The means of sending information
EX: Sound waves when talking to friends, telephone when talking to someone across town
Radio, TV, books, mags, newspaper, sound recordings, comp networks.
The osgood schramm model
demonstrates the ongoing and reciprocal nature of the communication process
Therefore: no source, no reciever and no feedback.
As com happens, both interpreters are simultaneously source and reciever
Culture is the learned behavior of members of a given social group
Culture is learned, actively contrusted and mainted
We are not born into culture, we learn it, what to do and what not to do.
Culture dictates and reproduces social norms
EX: not just barbie that is cultural, what we DO with barbie
the culture that seems to hold sway with the large majority of people; that which is normative;
often openly challenged
Smaller cultures within a larger one
The ability to effectively and efficitently comprehend and use any form of mediated comm.
Expanding literate culture, encouraged technological innovation, the printing press.
Those w/o a written language
Virtually all comm face to face
Griots- talking chiefs
Language- specific and local
Knowledge must be passed down orally
Memory is crucial
Myth and history are intertwined
ppl rely on each other for survival, rules are clearly defined, control over comm rarely necissary
Printing press effects
Written comm available to a much larger portion of society, upping need for literacy
learned things at printing shops
new ideas germinated
free to read what they want, power of choice
mythh less prevelant
engine driving industrial revolution
Categories of expression within different media
EX: evening news, documentary, entertainment magazine
Standardized style elements pertaining to a specific genre
Means of delivering a specific piece of media content
erosion of traditional distinctions among media.
Increase in ownership of media outlets by larger non-media companies
Economies of scale
Cheaper or barely any financial difference if you own one vs. if you own multiple
Concentration of media industries into an even smaller number of companies
Trend 2: Rapid Globalization
Globalization- Primarily large multinational congloms. that are doing the lion's share for media acquisition
Issues: Lack of diversity of expression
Increase in the intertwining of world's economies
EX: jamaican newspapers in newspapers in NY
Trend 1: Concentration of Ownership
Five companies own everything
Make a profit, less reporters
Hire stringers, ppl hired IN area, free lancers
Degradation of media content
Economies of scale and oligopoly
Trend 3: Audience Fragmentation
Audience Fragmentation: Becoming less of a mass audience. Mass comms segments become more narrowly defined
Used to be pics in magazines like Life, but TV did a better job of that so it took over the market
Narrowcasting, niche marketing, targeting- more specific magazines, TV shows for specific people
Thousands of viewing options, creates audience fragmentation- channels to specific people
Result: National culture diminishes
People bound by little more than interest in a given form of media culture.
Trend 4: Hypercommercial
1. Selling more advertising on existing and new media
2. Identifying adntl. ways to combine content and commercials
Trend 5: Convergence
Erosion of distinctions of among media
Concentration of ownership
Synergy- coming together on many different fronts to get the message out as many ways as possible
Integrating production and various forms of distribution
Platform agnostic don't care where we access content