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Chapter 5: Survey of Eukaryotic cells and Microorganisms
Terms in this set (109)
*What are flagella?
long, sheath cylinder containing microtubules in a 9+2 arrangement, covered by cell membrane
Are prokaryotic or eukaryotic flagella thicker?
eukaryotic flagella is 10x thicker
Where did organelles come from?
prokaryotic cells trapped inside of them
What are the eukaryotic organisms studied in microbiology?
protozoa, fungi, algae, helminths, and arthropods
Are protozoa unicellular or multicellular?
Are fungi and algae unicellular or multicellular?
Are helminths and arthropods unicellular or multicellular?
multicellular (except reproductive stage)
What is a vector?
Any living organism that can carry a disease-producing virus
*What is cilia?
external structure that functions in motility, feeding and filtering.
How are flagella and cilia different?
cilia is shorter and more numerous
Only some _______ have cilia.
*What is an outermost boundary that comes in direct contact with the environment called?
glycocalyx, it coats the cell membrane of many cells.
*What are glycocalyx typically composed of? How does it appear?
polysaccarides. Appears as network fibers, a slime layer or a capsule.
*What is the function of glycocalyx?
adhearance, protection, and signal reception
Beneath the glycocalyx (fungi and most algae)
have a thick, rigid cell wall
Beneath the glycocalyx (protozoa, a few algae and all animal cells)
lack a cell wall and only have a membrane
appendages (flagella and cilia) and glycocalyx
Boundary of the cell
cell wall and cell/cytoplasmic membrane
*What is the cell wall?
rigid layer that provides structural support and shape
-fungi and algae have cell walls (plants)
Describe the cell walls of fungi
thick inner layer of polysaccaride fibers composed of chitin or cellulose and a thin layer of glycans
Describe the cell wall of algae
varies in chemical composition; common substances include cellulose, pectin, mannans, silicon dioxide, and calcium carbonate
*What is the cell (cytoplasmic) membrane composed of?
bilayer of phospholipids and proteins and sterols (provide stability)
*What serves as a selectively permeable barrier in transport?
What provides for 60-80% of eukaryotic cell volume?
*What is the endosymbiotic theory?
theory that eukaryotic organelles such as mitochondria and chloroplasts from ancient free living prokaryotes invaded primitive eukaryotic cells
Describe the nucleus
genetic center of the cell, repository DNA, synthesis of RNA
Functions of the Nucleolus
rRNA synthesis and ribosome assembly
Functions of the Smooth ER
nutrient processing, synthesis and lipid storage
Describe the rough ER
-goes from the outside of the nuclear envelope and extends through the cytoplasm
-studded with ribosomes, makes proteins, first step in the secretory pathway
Describe the Golgi Apparatus
-modifies, stores and packages proteins prior to secretion.
-made of stacks of cisternae
What organelles are apart of the process of sceretion?
*Transport vesicles function
carries ER proteins to the golgi for maturation and modification
*Condescending vesicles function
carries proteins to organelles or into secretory vesicles
secrete substances outside the cell by exocytosis
*What are lysosomes and what do they do?
vesicles containing enzymes from the golgi, involved in intracellular digestion and protects against invading microbes.
*What are vacuoles?
Membrane bound sacs containing particles to be digested, excreted, or stored
*What are phagosomes?
Vacuoles merged with a lysosome
-ATP production and storage
-spherical shaped with outer and inner membrane & cristae
-cristae holds enzymes and electron carriers of aerobic respiration
-divide independently of the cell
-DNA and prokaryotic ribosomes are in the *matrix (spaces around cristae)
-convert sunlight into chemical energy through photosynthesis
-outer membrane covers inner membrane folded into sacs called
thylakoids stacked into
grana which carry pigments.
-primary producers of organic nutrients for other nutrients
What are the primary producers of organic materials for other organisms?
composed of rRNA proteins, scattered in the cytoplasm and associated with the RER, larger than prokaryotic ribosomes, function in protein synthesis
*What is the cytoskeleton and what is it made of?
a flexible framework of
microfilaments that form a network throughout the cytoplasm
-involved in organelle anchoring, movement of cytoplasm, amoeboid motion, transport and structural support
The majority of fungi are
unicellular or colonial; some have specialization
mushrooms, puffballs, gill fungi
molds and yeasts
*What are hyphae?
-long, threadlike cells that make up the bodies of filamentous fungi, or molds
-some have different textures of mycelia and an array of color differences due to spores
round oviod shape, asexual reproduction
*What is a dimorphic fungi?
microscopic fungi that can grow as mold or yeast (some pathogenic molds)
What does heterotrophic mean?
must feed on other organisms to obtain nutrients (cannot make their own food)
Does yeast have a cell wall? locomotor organelles?
has a cell wall, does not have locomotor organelles
How does yeast reproduce?
budding, grows swellings on its surface (buds) which becomes individual cells
All fungi are what?
Are the majority of fungi harmless?
yes, many are saprobes living off dead matter
Can fungi be parasites?
yes, some live off the tissue of other organisms but none are obligate (does not require a host to reproduce)
*What are mycoses?
What is athletes foot caused by?
Describe filamentous fungi (yeast)
mass of hyphae called mycelium; cottony, hairy, or velvety texture
What is the function of vegetative hyphae (mycelia)?
digest and absorb nutrients
What is the function of reproductive hyphae?
produces spores for reproduction
What is a psueudophypha?
found on some yeast, a chain of yeasts formed when buds remain attached in a row but isn't a true hypha like molds have
What is the difference between hyphae and psuedophypha?
hyphae- threadlike filaments, found in molds
psuedophypha- chains budding cells, found in yeasts
What is the primary way fungi reproduce?
through spores located on reproductive hyphae
What are sporangiospores?
formed by cleavages within a saclike head (sporangium). enclosed until the sporangium ruptures.
What are sporangium?
free spores not enclosed by spore-bearing sac, asexual
sporangium (asexual spores)
How are sexual spores formed?
by the fusion of two different strains and formation of sexual structure
What are zygospores, ascospores, and basidospores?
sexual spores and spore-forming structures help with
How are fungus classified?
type of sexual reproduction
*How are fungus identified?
asexual spore-froming structures and spores, hyphal type, colony texture and color, physiological characteristics, genetic makeup
Subdivided by type of sexual reproduction
zygospores; mostly sporangiospores and some conidia
only reproduce asexually
Fungi Adverse Impact
mycoses, allergies, toxin production and destruction of crops and food storage
Fungi Beneficial impact
source of antibiotics, alcohol, organic acids, vitamins
decomposition of dead matter
used in making foods and genetic studies
Why is red tide dangerous?
some dinoflagellates produce a neurotoxins that cause paralytic shellfish poisoning. If consumed, it could lead to respiratory arrest and has no antidote
eukaryotic organisms, usually unicellular and colonial, that photosynthesize with chlorophylla
unicellular eukaryotes that lack tissues and share similarities in cell structure, nutrition, life cycle, and biochemistry
photosynthetic, microscopic forms are colonial, unicellular or filamentous, contain chloroplasts, cell wall, some have flagella
What are plankton?
What organism provides a basis of food web in most aquatic habitats?
True or false
algae produces a large portion of atmosphere O2
____________ can cause red tides and give off toxins that cause food poisoning with neurological symptoms
Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning
symptoms are rapid and neurological
only last a few days in non lethal cases
symptoms: tingling, numbness, fever, rash, staggering
severe cases result in respiratory arrest within 24 hours of consumption
diverse, no cell wall or chloroplast, mostly unicellular, mostly harmless and free-living in a moist habitat, heterotrophic
How do protozoa feed?
by engulfing other microbes and organic matter
What is the cytoplasm of protozoa divided into?
ectoplasm and endoplasm
How do protozoa move?
pseudopodia, cilia, flagella
What is a trophozoite?
motile feeding stage of protozoa
What is a protozoa cyst stage?
dormant stage during unfavorable conditions for growth and feeding
How do protozoa reproduce?
all reproduce asexually by mitosis or multiple fission but some can produce sexually by conjugation
What is the difference between cyst and trophozoite?
cyst- dormant stage caused by unfavorable conditions
trophozoite- motile feeding stage
How are protozoa identified?
shape and size of cell, type, number and distribution of locomotor structures, presence of special organelles or cyst and number of nuclei
Pathogenic Flagellates: "Trypanosomes"
-"African sleeping sickness"
CA: T. brucei
transmitted by blood sucking insects and are in the blood during infection
Pathogenic Amoebas: "ineffective amoebas"
CA: Entamoeba histolytica
-cyst ingested and then germinate in the small intestine then trophozoites migrate to the large intestine
- can invade liver, lungs, skin
-causes gastrointestinal disturbances
Pathogenic flagellates: "Giardiasis"
CA: Giardia lamblia
-cyst are ingested and emerge as trophozites (motile feeding stage) in colon
-attaches to bowl
-feed off mucous and produce more cyst
Describe parasitic helmenthis
multicellular, infect host tissues, mouthparts attach and digest host tissue, sex organs that produce egg and sperm
Describe flatworms and list the two types
flat, no definitive body cavity, digestive tract is a blind pouch, simple excretory and nervous system
-flukes (trematodes) which are non-segmented with sucking mouthpart
What are the two types of parasitic helminths (worms)?
flat worms and round worms
Describe roundworms (nematodes)
round, complete digestive tract, spines and hooks on mouth and a poorly developed excretory and nervous system
There are approximately ___ species of parasitic worms which are more common in the ___________ and effect billions of humans worldwide.
What is the lifecycle of a pinworm?
they hatch in the small intestine and mature for 1-2 months and then mature worms travel to the large intestine (colon), then die in a few weeks
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