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Plant Biology Lecture 12 Exam 2
Terms in this set (66)
What are the steps to an open system?
-Makes ATP and releases CO2
What happens in a closed system?
-no energy from the surroundings
-closed system: order becomes disorder
What are energy transformations where energy in chemical bonds are transferred to new types of chemical bonds?
What do electrons do in chemical reactions?
shift from one energy level to another
What is it called when electrons move from one atom or molecule to another during chemical reactions?
What is oxidation?
loss of an electron
What is reduction?
gain of electrons
What is the starting material in a chemical reaction called?
What are the substances resulting from a chemical reaction?
Which side of a reaction are reactants found on?
Which side for products?
What is the reaction for respiration?
C6H12O6 + 6O2----> 6CO2 + 6H20 + ATP (energy)
What happens to electrons and hydrogen during photosynthesis?
transferred from water to carbon dioxide
During photosynthesis, water is oxidized to form what?
During photosynthesis, carbon dioxide is reduced to form what?
3-carbon sugars, which eventually forms glucose
What is the reaction that happens during photosynthesis?
6CO2+ 6H20+ energy ---> C6H12O6 +6O2
What is the reaction called if it needs energy?
What is the reaction called if energy is released?
What do most chemical reactions require to get started?
an initial input of energy
What is the energy that is required to get the reaction going called?
energy of activation
What can the energy of activation be?
-this would be a problem for the cell
How can cells avoid the problem of using heat or sparks for energy of activation?
they use enzymes
What are protein molecules that can catalyze a reaction?
What is a substance that lowers the activation energy required for a reaction?
What are not consumed in the chemical reaction?
-what does this mean?
Catalysts (even enzymes)
-they can catalyze thousands of individual reactions
What kind of site do enzymes typically have and what binds there?
active site where the substrate fits
What is a precise 3-dimensional shape, accompanied by charged, uncharged, hydrophilic, or hydrophobic regions on its binding surfaces?
What is a substance acted on by an enzyme?
What is a consequence of photosynthesis?
250 billion metric tons of sugar are made annually
In an underwater plant, where do the bubbles (oxygen) come from?
breakdown of water
Who determined that photosynthesis occurs in two stages?
What are the 2 stages of photosynthesis?
What is the characteristic of light dependent photosynthesis?
What is the characteristic of light independent photosynthesis?
-rate increases with increased temperature
-at temperatures above 30 degrees C, the rate decreases
-reveals the process was controlled by enzymes
When looking at the nature of light, what is the distance from peak to peak called?
What is a substance that absorbs light?
What do most pigments only absorb?
-what happens to the rest?
certain wavelengths of light
-the remaining light that is not absorbed is transmitted
What absorbs violet, blue, and red wavelengths and reflects green wavelengths?
-What does this do to a plant?
-gives the green appearance of plants
What part of chlorophyll absorbs light?
What part of chlorophyll anchors the molecule to the thylakoid membrane?
What is the light absorption pattern of a pigment?
What demonstrates the relative effectiveness of the different wavelengths for a specific light requiring process (photosynthesis)?
What is it called when electrons become boosted to a higher energy state when pigments absorb light?
When speaking of the fate of energy, what is energy converted to with the remaining energy released as a less energetic photon?
-What is the release of the remaining energy as a less energetic photon called?
heat or partially to heat
Compare the wavelength of the absorbed energy and the emitted energy of fluorescence.
the wavelength of the emitted photon is slightly longer and thus less energetic than the original absorbed light
When speaking of the fate of energy, what can the energy (not the electron) be transferred between?
transferred from one chlorophyll molecule to a neighboring chlorophyll molecule
When energy is transferred from one chlorophyll molecule to a second chlorophyll molecule, what does this cause?
excites the second chlorophyll molecule
-allows the first chlorophyll molecule to return to its ground state
What is the process of transferring energy between 2 chlorophyll molecules that excites the 2nd and returns 1st to ground state called?
resonance energy transfer
When speaking of the fate of energy, what is a high energy electron transferred to and what does it cause?
-transferred to a neighboring molecule (an electron acceptor) that is part of an electron transport chain
-leaves an electron hole in the excited chlorophyll molecule
When a high energy electron is transferred to an electron acceptor on an electron transport chain and leaves a hole in the excited chlorophyll molecule, this results in ----- of the chlorophyll molecule and ----- of the electron acceptor.
oxidation of chlorophyll molecule
-reduction of electron acceptor
How many fates of energy are there?
What are the fates of energy that are useful during photosynthesis?
-resonance energy transfer (fate 2) and transfer of the electron itself (fate 3)
Which fate competes with the other fates?
Fate 1 (conversion to heat and/or fluorescence)
What is the Antenna complex in chlorophyll ?
What is the reaction center in chlorophyll?
special chlorophyll a molecule
What are the main photosynthetic pigments?
What are the different types of chlorophyll?
chlorophyll a, b, c, bacteriochlorophyll, chlorobium chlorophyll
What can be a primary or accessory pigment?
Which type of chlorophyll is a primary pigment, found in all photosynthetic organisms, and is essential for oxygen generating photosynthesis?
Which type of chlorophyll is an accessory pigment, found in green algae and euglenoid algae, is slightly different absorption than chlorophyll, not directly involved in photosynthetic energy transduction, and serves to broaden the range of light that can be used during photosynthesis?
What does chlorophyll b transfer its energy to?
How many photosystems are involved in the light dependent reactions?
How many pigment molecules does each photosystem have?
Which photosystem was discovered first?
What does P680 mean?
the optimal wavelength of light absorbed by special chl a is 680 nanometers
What does P700 mean?
the optimal wavelength of light absorbed by
special chl a is 700 nanometers
What is a series of proteins that transfer
electrons from electron donors to electron acceptors via redox reactions, and couples this electron transfer with the transfer of protons (H+ ions) across a membrane?
Electron transport chain (ETC)
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