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3 Jim Crow Laws
poll tax, literacy test, grandfather clause
(violate equal protection of 14th amendment)
2 rulings of Brown v Board of Education
-separate is NOT equal
- all deliberate speed (own pace)
(overturned Plessy v. F)
De Jure Discrimination
by law; illegal; racial segregation that is a direct result of law or official policy
Voting Rights act of 1965
eliminated poll tax; fed gov. used to ensure equal protection; BYE jim crow laws
DOMA (marriage=right between man and woman); Virginia Civil Union Law (gave homosexual couples same rights as married couples)
aka Selective Incorporation
Using the 14th amendment to apply the Bill of Rights to the states on a case by case basis
Free Exercise clause
"congress shall make no law prohibiting free exercise"; Reynolds vs US; Oregon vs Smith=banned illegal drug use in religious ceremonies
NYT vs. US
pentagon papers. Prior Restraint/Censorship- unconstitutional unless it presents clear and present danger to our nation
National Socialist Party of America vs. Skokie
constitutional for Nazis to march in jewish neighborhood
Texas vs. Johnson
flag burning is constitutional; freedom of symbolic speech; giving money to presidential candidates
Hazlewood vs. Kuhlmeier
administration has prior restraint (Beaulieu can look at newspaper and decide whether or not o publish articles in school)
anything obtained in illegal search and siezure cannot be used in trial (EXCEPT IN PLAIN SIGHT OR WITH CONSENT)
5th amendment protections
indictment by grand jury
Miranda vs Arizona
protection against self incrimination- informed you have the right to remain silent- miranda rights
Griswold vs Connecticut
establishes Right to Privacy; law passed in connecticut banning the dissemination of info about the sale of contraceptives
Roe Vs Wade
decision to carry a pregnancy to term or have an abortion was a woman's fundamental right;
1) woman's undefined right
2) prohibiting abortion prohibits right to privacy
Cruzan v Missouri Dept of Health
right to die; living will is legitimate; only if patients family is able to provide evidence like a living will; uses 9th amendment
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