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Chapter 7: Microbial Nutrition, Ecology, & Growth
Terms in this set (78)
process by which chemical substances (nutrients) are acquired from the environment and used in cellular activities
in general, all living things have an absolute need for ____________________ (carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, etc), and these are basic requirements.
any substance that must be provided to an organism (in other words: the cell cannot produce the substance itself); two categories: macronutrients, micronutrients
also called trace elements, nutrients required in relatively small amounts; involved in enzyme function and maintenance of protein structure (examples: manganese, zinc, nickel)
nutrients required in relatively large amounts; play principal roles in cell structure and metabolism (proteins, carbohydrates)
a(n) ________________ must obtain its carbon in an organic form. (because most organic carbon originates from organisms, these organisms are nutritionally dependent on other life forms.)
a(n) ________________ uses inorganic CO2 as it's carbon source.
organism that uses chemical compounds as an energy source
organism that uses light as an energy source
List two types of autotrophs.
chemoheterotroph, photoheterotroph, saprobe, parasite
List four types of heterotrophs.
An organism that uses light energy to generate ATP and produce organic compounds from inorganic substances
An organism that uses light energy to generate ATP and obtains organic compounds from other organisms
An organism that uses energy from chemical reactions to generate ATP and produce organic compounds from inorganic substances
an organism that uses energy from chemical reactions to generate ATP and obtains organic compounds from other organisms
-(this category includes protozoa, fungi, many bacteria, and animals)
photosynthetic organisms such as algae, plants, and cyanobacteria are considered ___________________ (in terms of energy source/ carbon source)
certain bacteria such as methanogens and deep sea vent bacteria are considered _____________________ (in terms of energy source/ carbon source)
an organism that obtains its carbon and energy by absorbing nutrients from decaying organic matter of dead organisms.
an organism that derives energy from the tissues and fluids of a live host. (this can include various bacteria, protozoa, fungi, and animals)
fungi and bacteria are often considered to be _______________ (in terms of energy source/ carbon source) because they are decomposers
purple and green photosynthetic bacteria are considered ___________________ (in terms of energy source/ carbon source)
unlike animal cells, bacteria need to secrete enzymes externally in order to break macromolecules into micromolecules. What structure forces them to digest this way?
______________ transport does not require energy, substances exist in a gradient and move from a higher concentration to a lower concentration
net movement of molecules down their concentration gradient by random thermal motion
charged particles and polar water molecules will be
a. attracted to eachother
b. repelled by eachother.
Diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
utilizes a carrier protein in the membrane that will bind a specific substance, a form of passive transport.
the rate of transport during facilitated diffusion is limited by the number of binding sites on the transport proteins. The point at which all proteins are "full" is called ____________________.
in an ________________ solution, the solute concentration of a cell and it's environment are equal.
in an ________________ solution, the solute concentration of the environment is lower than in the cell.
in an ________________ solution, the solute concentration in the environment is higher than in the cell.
________________ solutions are generally the most stable environment for cells.
slightly ________________ solutions are tolerated well by most bacteria.
___________________ solutions tend to have a growth limiting effect on microbes.
______________ transport requires energy, requires transport proteins, and requires phosphorylation of the transport proteins. **works independent of concentration gradient
carrier mediated transport
active transport in which atoms or molecules are into or out of the cell by specialized receptors, driven by ATP or other high energy molecules.
active transport in which molecule is moved across membrane and simultaneously converted to metabolically useful substances (**molecule is modified in the process)
active transport in which there is mass transport of large particles and liquids by engulfment and vesicle formation.
_____________________ temperature is the lowest temperature that permits a microbe's growth and metabolism.
___________________ temperature is the highest temperature that permits a microbe's growth and metabolism.
_________________ temperature is the temperature that promotes the fastest rate of growth and metabolism.
an organism that favors cold, optimum temperature below 15 C, is capable of growth at 0 C.
organism's optimum temperature is 20 C to 40 C.
-includes most human pathogens
-often have a broad range of temperatures they can live in
an organism that favors the heat, optimum temperature is greater than 45 C; these organisms adapt to use enzymes that will not denature in heat.
singlet oxygen (O2)
superoxide ion (O2-)
peroxide (H2 O2)
hydroxyl radicals (OH-)
As oxygen is utilized, it is transformed into several toxic products. List four of them.
superoxide dismutase. catalase
the superoxide ion is converted to hydrogen peroxide and oxygen by _______________ _____________________, and the hydrogen peroxide is degraded by _______________ into water and oxygen.
organism that utilizes oxygen and can detoxify it.
organism that cannot grow without oxygen
organism that utilizes oxygen but can grow in its absence
-(metabolizes by aerobic respiration when oxygen is present, but can adopt anaerobic modes of metabolism such as fermentation)
organism that requires only a small amount of oxygen
organism that does not utilize oxygen
organism that lacks enzymes to detoxify oxygen so it cannot survive in an oxygen environment
organism that does not utilize oxygen but can survive and grow in its presence.
organisms that grow best at a higher CO2 concentration than is normally present in the atmosphere
organisms that require a high concentration of salt
Organisms that do not require high concentration of solute but can tolerate it when it occurs
organisms that live in habitats with high solute concentration
in a _____________________ association, the organisms live in close nutritional relationships; advantageous to at least one of the members.
in a _____________________ nutritional association, the organisms are free living and no relationships are required, but it can happen.
___________ is a symbiotic relationship in which both members benefit.
-example: probiotics in the body
symbiotic relationship in which the members have an unequal relationship. One partner is favored by the association and the other is neither harmed nor helped.
-example: normal flora in the body
symbiotic relationship in which the parasite is dependent on host tissue and cells and benefits, host is harmed.
-example: viruses invading bacteria
nonsymbiotic relationship in which members cooperate and share nutrients (feed off substances released by other organisms)
nonsymbiotic relationship in which some members are inhibited or destroyed by others.
"flat" period of adjustment, enlargement; little growth
exponential growth phase
a period of maximum growth will continue as long as cells have adequate nutrients and a favorable environment
-resources are plentiful and toxins are low
population reaches a limit and curve levels off. rate of cell growth equals rate of cell death caused by depleted nutrients and O2, accumulation of organic acids and pollutants
as limiting factors intensify, cells die exponentially in their own wastes
attachment to surface. aggregation. production of matrix. organization. colonization.
list the five stages of biofilm formation/growth
attachment to surface
In the stage of biofilm growth, the first colonizers have an adhesive reaction with an inanimate or living surface.
In the stage of biofilm growth, there is cell to cell adhesion (cell adhere to first colonizers)
production of matrix
In the stage of biofilm growth, a sticky polysaccharide is secreted outside of the cell (similar to glycocaylx, glue-like) and causes a cell to matrix interaction.
In the stage of biofilm growth, cells differentially express genes based on location. The cells at the bottom of the biofilm have a different environment than the cells at the surface of the biofilm, therefore they express genes differently.
-surface cells may be exposed to nutrients and oxygen while base cells are not, base cells become stationary and do not divide.
In the stage of biofilm growth, cells break off and become first colonizers to build more biofilm.
true or false:
biofilm can consist of may species of organism- the first colonizers may not be the same as the aggregates.
______________ provide a good defensive position for bacteria and resistance to immune response because
-there is reduced drug penetration to lower levels
-inactivation of antibiotics and alteration of immune response
-ineffective ingestion by phagocytes due to layering and matrix
_________________ cells in a biofilm are less susceptible to antibiotics because antibiotics often target dividing cells, and these cells aren't dividing.
final population = (starting population) 2 ^ number of generations
what is the formula for calculating population size over time?
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