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Exam 2 Review
Terms in this set (35)
A rhythm that continues in the absence of environmental cues. It's completely internal.
Rhythm that's in phase with environmental cues.
A rhythm that may not stay precisely synchronized with external environmental time.
This occurs when an environmental cue resets the internal clock to the outside world.
Brain and spinal cord
Peripheral nerves and ganglia
Division of autonomic nervous system that increases activity of muscles and glands.
Division of autonomic nervous system that inhibits activity of muscles and glands. Rest and digest.
Water-soluble hormones released from storage vesicles on demand.
Fat-soluble hormones that are synthesized on demand.
TSH, T3, T4, metabolism, growth
_____ is released from the anterior pituitary, goes to the thyroid gland, stimulating it to release _____ and _____, resulting in _____ and _____.
hypothalamus, anterior pituitary, ACTH, cortisol, stress response
Corticotrophin releasing hormone is released from the _____, which acts on the _____ _____ causing it to release _____, which goes to the adrenal cortex, stimulating it to release _____, resulting in _____.
Cortisol release results in _____ blood glucose.
Incomplete metamorphosis - the young looks like an adult and grows.
Complete metamorphosis - caterpillar to butterfly.
kidney, aldosterone, retention, vasoconstriction
The _____ recognizes low blood pressure and secretes renin. Renin triggers release of angiotensinogen which is converted into angiotensin. ACE converts angiotensin I into angiotensin II. Angiotensin II causes release of _____, which results in Na+ _____, thereby increasing H2O retention, increasing blood volume and therefore blood pressure. Angiotensin II also increases thirst, increasing blood volume and pressure. It also increases _____ which increases blood pressure.
_____ triggers rupture of follicle.
Characterized by a spike in LH.
Maintains the corpus luteum.
Empty follicle that releases progesterone.
Maintains the endometrium.
Promotes development of follicle containing egg.
Promotes LH surge, sex drive, and endometrial growth.
Causes pituitary to release LH and FSH.
Change in tension
Change in length
Calcium binds to calmodulin, activating myosin light chained kinase, which phosphorylates myosin thereby activating its ATPase activity, which activates and maintains cross bridge formation.
Smooth muscle contraction
What two hormones are exclusively secreted from the posterior pituitary?
Growth hormone doesn't cease secretion after adolescence.
Oversecretion of growth hormone AFTER growth has stopped.
If someone has moon face and abdominal fat deposition with stretch marks and an excessive level of cortisol in their system, what do they probably have?
epinephrine, norepinephrine, CRH, vasopressin, ACTH, cortisol
Stress --> sympathetic activation resulting in secretion of _____ and _____, hypothalamus releases _____ and _____. Sympathetic activation results in increased heart rate, ventilation, vasoconstriction, and glucagon; decreased digestion. Hypothalamus hormones result in secretion of _____ from the anterior pituitary which stimulates the adrenal cortex to release _____.
Increases aquaporins in cell membrane resulting in water retention.
High blood volume causes heart to stretch. ANP is secreted and acts on the kidneys making them excrete more sodium and water, thereby lowering blood pressure and volume.
Action of ANP
Calcium binds to troponin exposing active site on actin
Myosin forms cross-bridge with actin.
Power stroke occurs, ADP and Pi released.
New ATP attaches to myosin head, cross-bridge detaches.
Hydrolysis of ATP cocks myosin.
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