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Blood and Vessels BIO202
Terms in this set (214)
aorta, medium arteries, arterioles, capillaries
venae cavae, medium veins, venules, capillaries
basement membrane of blood vessels
surrounds the blood vessel walls
The thin layer of cells that line the interior surface of all blood vessels. Only one cell thick in capillaries.
tunica interna (intima)
the innermost layer of a blood vessel
middle layer of artery; made up of smooth muscle fibers and thick layer of elastic connective tissue
tunica externa (adventitia)
collagen fibers that protect and reinforce vessels
normally the precapillary sphincters are _________ which ________ blood to/from flow to true capillary beds
normally they are CLOSED which PREVENTS blood from flowing into the true capillary beds
equation for MAP
MAP = diastolic pressure + 1/3 pulse pressure
MAP is an important measure of....?
maximum stress exerted on small arteries by the pressure surges generated by the heart
MAP most influences the risk of....?
Syncope (fainting), atherosclerosis, kidney failure, edema, and aneurysm
maintaining blood pressure requires cooperation of which organs....? with the supervision of the brain
Cooperation of the heart, blood vessels, and kidneys
Blood pressure cycles over a ______hour period
BP peaks in the _______ due to levels of hormones
BP peaks in the morning
factors which effect blood pressure
Age, sex, weight, race, mood, ect and posture may vary BP
low blood pressure
-Systolic pressure below 100 mm Hg
5 steps to resolving low blood pressure
(homeostatic response to hypotension)
1. baroreceptors detect low blood pressure
2. signal travels up afferent pathway to the brain
3. signal reaches control center which decides course of action
4. signal from control center is sent down efferent pathway towards the effector
5. signal reaches effector (the heart) and heart rate is increased
orthostatic hypotension (postural hypotension)
temporary low BP, "head rush", dizziness, syncope (fainting) when suddenly rising from a sitting or reclining position
-Due to ailing sympathetic nervous system
orthostatic hypotension is caused by....?
caused by ailing sympathetic nervous system
-persistent abnormally low blood pressure
hint of poor nutrition & warning sirgn for Addison's disease or hypothyroidism
important sign of circulatory shock; a significant threat to patients undergoing surgery
high blood pressure
-Sustained elevated arterial pressure of 140/90 or higher
-Due to several risk factors including diet, obesity, age, stress, diabetes mellitus, smoking, and heredity.
-High Systolic best indicator of future problems
• Secondary hypertension is less common
-Due to identifiable disorders, including kidney disease, arteriosclerosis, and endocrine disorders such as hyperthyroidism and Cushing's syndrome
functions of blood flow
-Delivery of O2 and nutrients to, and removal of wastes from, tissue cells
-Gas exchange (lungs)
-Absorption of nutrients (digestive tract)
-Urine formation (kidneys)
blood flow is the fastest where?
in the aorta
Blood flow is slowest where?
in the capillaries
the velocity of blood flow is _________ related to the total cross-sectional area
these cause blood vessel dilation
CO2, K+, prostaglandins, Nitric Oxide (NO)
these cause blood vessel constriction
endothelins, myogenic stretch
nerves in the _____ are intolerant of ischemia
neurons in the brain
Fainting or Syncope occurs when MAP falls below _____ mm Hg
falls below 60 mm Hg
lack of oxygen
______ minutes Anoxia will cause irreversible brain damage
The generation of new vessels
-Occurs when short-term autoregulation cannot meet tissue nutrient requirements
-The number of vessels to a region increases and existing vessels enlarge
-Common in the heart when a coronary vessel is occluded
blockage of a vessel
Brief episodes of ischemia produce _______ and are often indicative of future stroke
TIAs (Transient Ischemic Attacks)
angiogenesis is common in the heart when...?
common in the heart when there is an occluded coronary vessel
3 factors which aid venous return
1. Respiratory "pump": pressure changes created during breathing move blood toward the heart
2. Muscular "pump": contraction of skeletal muscles "milk" blood toward the heart and valves prevent backflow
3. Vasoconstriction of veins under sympathetic control
The Vasomotor Center
A cluster of sympathetic neurons in the medulla that oversee changes in blood vessel diameter
• Maintains vasomotor tone (moderate constriction of arterioles)
• Receives inputs from receptors and higher brain centers
Varicosities of the anal veins are called
Tortuous and dilated veins because of incompetent (leaky) valves
white blood cells are known as ....?
known as leukocytes
white blood cells (leukocytes) make up how much % of blood volume
<1% of total blood volume
the passage of blood cells (leukocytes) through the intact walls of the capillaries, typically accompanying inflammation
-through ameboid motion and chemotaxis
leukocytes move through tissue spaces by ____________ and ___________
which is known as diapedesis
ameboid motion and positive chemotaxis
abnormally high WBC count indicates bacterial/viral infection
-WBC count over about 10,000/ µL
when white blood cells move through blood vessel walls it is known as....?
it is known as diapedesis
50% of leukocytes are what type?
(WBC % composition)
2% of leukocytes are what type?
(WBC % composition)
1% of leukocytes are which type?
(WBC % composition)
neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils
3 types of granulocytes
lymphocytes and monocytes
25% of leukocytes are which type...?
(WBC % composition)
3% of leukocytes are which type?
(WBC % composition)
what kind of leukocytes have no visible granules in their cytoplasm?
Agranulocytes lack visible granules
-lymphocytes and monocytes
Two types of lymphocytes
B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes
T cells (T lymphocytes) function
act against virus-infected cells and tumor cells
B cells (B lymphocytes) function
give rise to plasma cells, which produce antibodies
which of the two types of lymphocytes produce antibodies?
B cells/lymphocytes produce plasma cells which make antibodies
what are the largest type of leukocytes?
function of monocytes
phagocytosis; develop into macrophages in tissues
-Actively phagocytic cells; crucial against viruses, intracellular bacterial parasites, and chronic infections
• Are APCs (Antigen presenting cells)
-Activate lymphocytes to mount an immune response
Blood cell formation is called
known as hematopoiesis
Red blood cell formation is referred to as...?
known as erythropoiesis
primary location for hematopoiesis and erythropoiesis?
-Primarily occurs in red bone marrow of bones
Nutritional requirements for erythropoiesis
the process of Erythropoiesis takes about how long?
about 3-5 days
Phases of Erythropoiesis
1. Reduction in cell size
2. Increase in cell number
3. Ribosome synthesis and Hemoglobin accumulation
4. Ejection of the nucleus and mitochondria
- Reticulocytes then become mature erythrocytes
an immature or young erythrocyte is known as a....?
known as a reticulocyte
when a reticulocyte mature it becomes a....?
it becomes an erythrocyte
a reticulocyte takes about _____ days to mature as the ribosomes are degraded
about 2 days
about how many reticulocytes are produced per second?
about 2.5 million
Reticulocyte counts provide a rough index into the rate of....?
the rate of RBC formation
a temporary network of polyribosomes within reticulocytes is known as...?
known as the reticulum
abnormal stacking of erythrocytes
Blood plasma accounts for what % of blood volume
55% of blood volume
what is contained in the buffy coat?
leukocytes and platelets
the buffy coat accounts for what % of blood volume?
less than 1% of blood volume
Erythrocytes (Red Blood Cells) account for what % of blood volume
about 45% of blood volume
what is the least dense component of blood?
(density in blood)
what is the most dense component of blood?
(density in blood)
what tool is used to separated the plasma from the blood?
using a centrifuge
when blood is spun in a centrifuge it is separated into what 3 components?
Blood is what type of tissue?
fluid connective tissue
the ratio of the volume of red blood cells to the total volume of blood
-known as the "blood fraction"
normal hematocrit for males and females
males: 47% ± 5% for males
females: 42% ± 5% for females
A blood plasma protein essential to blood clotting. The conversion of fibrinogen to its active form (fibrin) is among the final steps in clot formation, and is triggered by thrombin.
buffers plasma pH and significantly effects blood volume, pressure, and flow
-protein made by the liver
-blood plasma protein
product of blood plasma formed when fibrinogen and clotting factors are removed from blood plasma
3 blood plasma globulins:
•α - alpha transports Hb, copper, lipids, fat soluble vitamins, hormones; and also promotes blood clotting
•β - beta transports iron and lipids; and aids in the destruction of toxins and microorganisms (complement proteins)
•γ - gamma combats pathogens (antibodies)
Function of Erythrocytes (RBCs)
transport oxygen and carbon dioxide
-Hemoglobin (Hb) binds reversibly with oxygen
single RBC contains how many hemoglobin molecules?
about 250 million
a single RBC contains 4 protein chains known as...?
known as globins
Color of oxyhemoglobin
bright red (ruby)
CO2 loading in the tissues produces what?
O2 unloading in tissues produces what?
produces deoxyhemoglobin (dark red)
O2 loading in the lungs produces what?
oxyhemoglobin (ruby red)
greater affinity for oxygen than adult
-allows fetus to take oxygen from mother's blood
deficient oxygen in the blood
homeostatic response to hypoxemia**
hypoxemia is sensed by receptors then the liver and kidneys produce erythropoietin
Too few RBCs leads to
tissue hypoxia or hypoxemia
Too many RBCs leads to
increased blood viscosity
Balance of RBC production and destruction depends on
homonal controls and adequate nutrition
hormone which stimulates RBC production is known as..?
known as EPO (erythropoietin)
EPO (erythropoietin) is released where in the body?
by the kidneys
Renal dialysis patients whose kidneys have failed produce....?
low EPO and have low red blood cell counts that are half of healthy individuals
The life span of RBCs is approximately
about 120 days
Macrophages engulf dying RBCs in the ________
in the spleen
_________ break down old RBCs in the spleen
macrophages break them down
-lack of a normal number of red blood cells
-blood has abnormally low O2-carrying capacity
-A sign rather than a disease itself
-Blood O2 levels cannot support normal metabolism
-Accompanied by fatigue, paleness, shortness of breath, and chills
-Most common form is from small pale erythrocytes called iron-deficiency anemia
signs and symptoms of anemia
fatigue, paleness, shortness of breath, and chills
most common form of anemia
iron deficiency anemia
Developing erythrocytes grow but do not divide, and large, macrocytes result
• Deficiency of vitamin B12**
Treated by intramuscular injection of B12 or application of Nascobal
How is pernicious anemia treated?
Intramuscular injection of vitamin B12 or application of Nascobal
sickle cell anemia
-a genetic disorder that causes abnormal hemoglobin, resulting in some red blood cells assuming an abnormal sickle shape
-Causes RBCs to become sickle shaped and sticky in low-oxygen situations
• The stiff, deformed erythrocytes rupture easily and dam up small blood vessels
-1.3% of black newborns
excess of RBCs that increase blood viscosity (as high as 80%+ HCT) that can lead to stroke, embolism, or heart failure
causes of polycythemia
-Polycythemia vera: bone marrow cancer
-Secondary polycythemia—when less O2 is available (high altitude) or when EPO production increases due to smoking, pollution, emphysema, or excessive exercise.
-Exogenous Blood doping
production of white blood cells (leukocytes)
what stimulates leukopoiesis?
chemical messengers from bone marrow and mature WBCs
-Interleukins (e.g., IL-1, IL-2)
-Colony-stimulating factors (CSFs)
Abnormally low white blood cell count
-often drug induced
Bone marrow totally occupied with cancerous leukocytes
• Immature nonfunctional WBCs in the bloodstream
• Death caused by internal hemorrhage and overwhelming infections
treatment for leukemia
Treatments include irradiation, antileukemic drugs, and stem cell transplants
• 50% lymphocytes (10% atypical)
• Known colloquially as "the kissing disease" or "mono".
• Viral disease caused by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) that >90% adults exposed.
• Typical signs include fever, sore throat, and fatigue that usually resolve in a few weeks.
signs and symptoms of mononucleosis
Typical signs include fever, sore throat, and fatigue that usually resolve in a few weeks
mononucleosis can be transmitted for up to _____ months or longer
18 months or longer
What can happen when a transfusion of the wrong blood type is given to someone?
-agglutination is caused when mixing two different blood types.
-Diminished oxygen carrying capacity
-Hemoglobin blocks kidney tubules and causes Acute Renal Failure*
universal donor blood type
universal recipient blood type
AB+ since it doesn't have any antibodies
There are _____ different Rh agglutinogens (Rh factors)
most common Rh agglutinogens (Rh factors)
C, D, and E are most common
function of alpha globulin
transports Hb, copper, lipids, fat soluble vitamins, hormones; and also promotes blood clotting
function of beta globulin
transports iron and lipids; and aids in the destruction of toxins and microorganisms (complement proteins)
function of gamma globulin
combats pathogens (antibodies)
plasma (90% water)
Normal pH of blood
average volume of blood in males
average blood volume in females
average RBC count for males
~5.5 million cells per microliter
average RBC count for females
~5 million cells per microliter
if blood is bright ruby red, what is its level of oxygenation?
high oxygen concentration
dark red blood has what concentration of oxygen?
has low concentration of oxygen
what transports nitrogenous wastes, nutrients, and gases?
blood plasma transports these....
an example of a nitrogenous waste which is transported by the blood plasma would be......?
urea is the most abundant example
examples of nutrients and gases which are transported by the blood plasma...?
glucose (100 mg/ dL), amino acids, fats, cholesterol, phospholipids, vitamins, minerals; dissolved oxygen, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen
normal amount of urea found in blood plasma
_______ is converted into biliverdin. Biliverdin is then converted into ___________
Heme is converted into biliverdin which is then converted into bilirubin
bacteria breaks the bilirubin apart from the bile and converts it to _________ and then into stercobilin
bilirubin is broken and converted into urobilinogen and then into stercobilin
does this happen when the precapillary sphincters are open or closed?
—blood flows through metarteriole thoroughfare channel and bypasses true capillaries
when they are closed
when does blood flow through the true capillary beds?
when the precapillary sphincters are open
how much % of blood volume is located in the veins?
what % of blood volume is located in the heart at any one time?
what % of blood volume is located in the arteries?
what % of blood volume is located in the capillaries?
% of blood volume in systemic circulation
% of blood volume in pulmonary circulation
detect changes in blood pressure
chemical sensors in the brain and blood vessels that identify changing levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide
What is syncope?
temporary loss of consciousness caused by a fall in blood pressure
Sustained elevated arterial pressure of 140/90 or higher would be considered
would be considered hypertension (high blood pressure)
Prolonged hypertension is a major cause of.....?
heart failure, vascular disease, renal failure, and stroke
the best indicator for future problems with someone who has primary hypertension would be....?
a high systolic blood pressure is the best indicator
Primary or secondary hypertension risk factors?
risk factors including diet, obesity, age, stress, diabetes mellitus, smoking, and heredity
primary hypertension risk factors
This characteristic of blood changes as blood flows through the systemic circulatory system
the velocity (speed) of the blood
autoregulation is the ability to.....?
ability of a tissue to regulate its own blood supply.
• Is controlled intrinsically by modifying the diameter of local arterioles feeding the capillaries
what occurs when MAP falls below 60 mm Hg?
syncope (fainting) occurs
anoxia to the brain can cause irreversible brain damage in how long?
3-5 min anoxia
TIAs (Transient Ischemic Attacks) and are often indicative of.....?
indicative of future stroke
death of tissue
-can be caused by lack of blood supply
Stroke or CVA is often caused by what....?
Usually caused by atherosclerosis, thrombosis, or a ruptured aneurysm
When does angiogenesis occur?
when tissues need more oxygen
-when short-term autoregulation cannot meet tissue nutrient requirements
during what process does the number of vessels to a region increases and existing vessels enlarge
are granulocytes or agranulocytes phagocytic?
granulocytes are phagocytic
what type of white blood cell is the most numerous type?
neutrophils are the most numerous
what type of white blood cell is very phagocytic and is known as the "bacteria slayer" ?
neutrophils are very phagocytic bacteria slayers
what type of white blood cells are modulators of the immune response which digest parasitic worms which are too large to be phagocytized?
eosinophils are immune system modulators which digest parasitic worms
which white blood cell contains heparin and histamine?
basophils contain these...
an inflammatory chemical that acts as a vasodilator and attracts other WBCs to inflamed sites
-found in basophils
an anticoagulant that inhibits blood clotting
-found in basophils
Most rare white blood cell type?
basophils are the rarest
• Large, dark-purple, circular nuclei with a thin rim of blue cytoplasm
• Mostly in lymphoid tissue; few circulate in the blood
crucial to immunity
-T cells act against virus-infected cells and tumor cells
-B cells give rise to plasma cells, which produce antibodies
Antigen-presenting cells (APCs)
Activate lymphocytes to mount an immune response
-found in monocytes
study of blood and blood forming tissues
Erythropoiesis (RBC formation) occurs in which type of bone marrow?
in red bone marrow
the liver and spleen stop Erythropoiesis (RBC formation) around when?
-causes swelling/edema of gut
abnormal stacks or red blood cells is known as....?
known as Rouleaux
3 formed elements of blood
• Erythrocytes (red blood cells, or RBCs)
• Leukocytes (white blood cells, or WBCs)
• Platelets (fragments of megakaryocytes)
clear light yellow fluid in blood is known as....?
matrix of blood
clay colored stool
• Lack of stercobilin and bile pigments
AKA Hemolytic disease
Rh- mother becomes sensitized when exposure to Rh+ blood causes her body to synthesize anti-Rh antibodies [Anti-D]
• Anti-Rh antibodies cross the placenta and destroy the RBCs of an Rh+ baby
hemolytic disease of the newborn is also known as...?
Also known as erythroblastosis fetalis
name of serum which can prevent Rh- mothers from becoming sensitized to Rh+
RhoGAM serum (containing anti-Rh)
function of RhoGAM serum?
prevents Rh- mothers from bring sensitized to Rh+ blood during the next pregnancy
how to treat babies/ developing fetus with hemolytic disease?
The baby can be treated with prebirth transfusions and exchange transfusions after birth
Kernicterus (bilirubin encephalopathy)
Toxic Brain Syndrome caused by hemolyzed RBCs and resultant high bilirubin levels*
Agglutination causes RBCs to....?
causes them to form clumps/groups which block the entry ways to small vessels
-can result in renal failure
transfusions using packed RBCs are used to....?
(without blood plasma)
they are used to restore oxygen carrying capacity
whole blood transfusions are used when?
they are used when blood loss is substantial
when can a blood type not be determined?
from 8 months to about 8 years
which blood type has no surface antigens is....?
type o has no surface antigens
people under 8 years old ______ be given blood transfusions of any type
People over the age of ___ must be given the correct blood type during a blood transfusions
which blood type has anti-A surface antigens?
Two types of agglutinogens
A and B
is a high systolic or diastolic blood pressure the best indicator of future problems?
a high systolic blood pressure is the best indicator
Does nitric oxide cause vasoconstriction or vasodilation?
saying to remember the 5 types of leukocytes from most numerous to least
Never Let Monkeys Eat Banannas
what type of white blood cell turns into macrophages?
monocytes turn into macrophages
a pH below 7.35 would be considered?
when a reticulocyte is matured into an erythrocyte the _______ and the nucleus are removed from the cell
mitochondria are removed
a pH above 7.45 would be considered?
normal temp for blood
100.4 degrees F
38 degrees C
gives RBCs flexibility to twist and turn
-also helps maintain biconcave shape of RBCs
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