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86 terms

A & P Chapter 4

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Loose connective tissue with an open framework.
Areolar Tissue
The loose connective tissue layer beneath the serous membrane that lines the ventral body cavity.
Subserous Fascia
An incomplete layer of fibroblasts facing the synovial cavity, plus the underlying loose connective tissue.
Synovial Membrane
The central space within a duct or other internal passageway.
Lumen
The serous membrane that lines the peritoneal cavity.
Peritoneum
One of the four primary tissue types; a layer of cells that forms a superficial covering or an internal lining of a body cavity or vessel.
Epithelium
A contractile tissue dominated by skeletal muscle fibers; characterized as striated, voluntary muscle.
Skeletal Muscle Tissue
A tissue characterized by the presence of cells capable of contraction; includes skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle tissues.
Muscle tissue
A specialized cell in the deeper layers of the stratified squamous epithelium of the skin; responsible for the production of melanin.
Melanocyte
Cells of the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system that support and protect neurons; also called neuroglia.
Glial cells
Containing several layers.
Stratified
Proteoglycans situated between adjacent epithelial cells.
Intercellular Cement
A molecule containing two or more elements in combination.
Compound
Connections between cells that permit electrical coupling.
Gap Junctions
The epidermis and papillary layer of the dermis.
Cutaneous Membrane
Circulating granulocytes (white blood cells) similar in size and function to tissue mast cells.
Basophils
A small blood vessel, located between an arteriole and a venule, whose thin wall permits the diffusion of gases, nutrients, and wastes between plasma and interstitial fluids.
Capillary
A red blood cell; has no nucleus and contains large quantites of hemoglobin. See also erythrocyte.
Red Blood Cell (RBC)
Cartilage containing an abundance of collagen fibers; located around the edges of joints, in the intervertebral discs, the menisci of the knee, and so on.
Fibrous Cartilage
A mode of secretion in which the glandular cell sheds portions of its cytoplasm.
Apocrine Secretion
A microphage (white blood cell) with a lobed nucleus and red-stained granules; participates in the immune response and is especially important during alergic reactions.
Eosinophil
A simple squamous epithelium that lines one of the divisions of the ventral body cavity.
Mesothelium
A compound whose dissociation releases a hydroxide ion (OH-) or removes a hydrogen ion (H+) from the solution.
Base
A connective tissue with a gelatinous matrix that contains an abundance of fibers.
Cartilage
The invasion and colonization of body tissues by pathogens.
Infection
The reticular tissue that underlies a mucous epithelium and forms part of a mucous membrane.
Lamina Propria
The thick, collagenous tissue that forms at an injury site.
Scar Tissue
A carbohydrate component of proteoglycans in the matrix of many connective tissues.
Hyaluronan
The enlargement of a cartilage or bone by the addition of cartilage or bony matrix at its surface.
Appositional Growth
A form of cartilage growth through the growth, mitosis, and secretion of chondrocytes in the matrix.
Interstitial Growth
Loose connective tissue dominated by adipocytes.
Adipose Tissue
To increase in diameter; to enlarge or expand.
Dilate
Phagocytic agranulocytes (white blood cells) in the circulating blood.
Monocytes
Cells of the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system that support and protect neurons; also called glial cells.
Neuroglia
A gland that secretes hormones into the blood.
Endocrine Gland
The serous membrane that lines the pleural cavities.
Pleura
An epithelium that contains several layers of nuclei but whose cells are all in contact with the underlying basement membrane.
Pseudostratified Epithelium
The extracellular fibers and ground substance of a connective tissue.
Matrix
A blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart and toward a peripheral capillary.
Artery
A small pit or cavity.
Lacuna
A sensory process of a neuron.
Dendrite
Connective tissue fibers, primarily collagenous, that form sheets or bands beneath the skin to attach, stabilize, enclose, and separate muscles and other internal organs.
Fasciae
A loosely organized, easily distorted connective tissue that contains several fiber types, a varied population of cells, and a viscous ground substance.
Loose Connective Tissue
Cells of connective tissue proper that are responsible for the production of extracellular fibers and the secretion of teh organic compounds of the extracellular matrix.
Fibroblasts
A microphage that is very numerous and normally the first of the mobile phagocytic cells to arrive at an area of injury or infection.
Neutrophil
A fat cell.
Adipocyte
A blood vessel carrying blood from a capillary bed toward the heart.
Vein
A goblet-shaped, mucus-producing, unicellular gland in certain epithelia of the digestive and respiratory tracts; also called goblet cells.
Mucous Cell
The basic histological unit of compact bone, consisting of osteocytes organized around a central canal and separated by concentric lamellae.
Osteon
Proteoglycans responsible for the lubricating properties of mucus.
Mucins
A squamous epithelium and the underlying loose connective tissue; the lining of the pericardial, pleural, and peritoneal cavities.
Serous Membrane
Without blood vessels.
Avascular
The study of tissues.
Histology
A layer of filaments and fibers that attach an epithelium to the underlying connective tissue.
Basal Lamini
Small packets of cytoplasm that contain enzymes important in the clotting response; manufactured in bone marrow by megakaryocytes.
Platelets
Regions where adjacent cardiocytes interlock and where gap junctions permit electrical coupling between the cells.
Intercalated Discs
Microscopic passageways between cells; bile canaliculi carry bile to bile ducts in the liver; in bone, canaliculi permit the diffusion of nutrients and wastes to and from osteocytes.
Canaliculi
The simple squamous epithelial cells that line blood and lymphatic vessels.
Endothelium
An epithelium containing a single layer of cells above the basal lamina.
Simple Epithelium
Longitudinal canal in the center of an osteon that contains blood vessels and nerves, a passageway along the longitudinal axis of the spinal cord that contains cerebrospinal fluid.
Central Canal
A bone cell responsible for the maintenance and turnover of the mineral content of the surroundin bone.
Osteocyte
The fluid contents of lymphatic vessels, similar in composition to interstitial fluid.
Lymph
The layer that surrounds a cartilage, consisting of an outer fibrous region and an inner cellular region.
Perichondrium
The granulocytes of whole blood.
White Blood Cells (WBCs)
A fluid that diffuses across a serous membrane and lubricates opposing surfaces.
Transudate
A gland that secretes onto the body surface or into a passageway connected to the exterior.
Exocrine Gland
The elongate extension of a neuron that conducts an action potential.
Axon
A nonspcific defense mechanism that operates at the tissue level; characterized by swelling, redness, warmth, pain, and some loss of function.
Inflammation
The fibrous sac that surrounds the heart; its inner, serous lining is continuous with the epicardium.
Pericardium
A collection of specialized cells and cell products that performs a specific function.
Tissue
The predominant proteoglycan in cartilage, responsible for the gelantinous consistency of the matrix.
Chondroitin Sulfate
A connective tissue cell that, when stimulated, releases histamine, serotonin, and heparin, initiating the inflammatory response.
Mast Cell
Cells that produce exocrine or endocrine secretions.
Gland
Muscle tissue in the walls of many visceral organs; characterized as nonstriated, involuntary muscle.
Smooth Muscle Tissue
A cartilage cell.
Chondrocyte
An activated B cell that secretes antibodies; plasmocyte.
Plasma Cell
A lubricating fluid that is composed of water and mucins and is produced by unicellular and multicellular glands along the digestive, respiratory, urinary, and reproductive tracts.
Mucus (noun)
Dense bone that contains parallel osteons.
Compact Bone
The substance secreted by synovial membranes that lubricates joints.
Synovial Fluid
A cell in neural tissue that is specialized for intercellular communication through (1) changes in membrane potential and (2) synaptic connections.
Neuron
Flattened.
Squamous
A strong connective tissue containing specialized cells and a mineralized matrix of crystalline calcium phosphate and calcium carbonate; also called bone.
Osseous Tissue
The layer that surrounds a bone, consisting of an outer fibrous region and inner cellular region.
Periosteum
A cell of the lymphoid system that participates in the immune response.
Lymphocyte
An epithelium whose superficial cells are flattened and platelike.
Squamous Epithelium
The connective tissue framework of an organ; distinguished from the functional cells (parenchyma) of that organ.
Stroma

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