45 terms

Chapter 28: The Cold War

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Who are the big three leaders that met at the Yalta Conference in 1945 and which countries do they lead?
Roosevelt: U.S.
Churchill: Great Britain
Stalin: Soviet Union
What was the Cold War?
The Cold War increased American's fears of communism. A Cold War is a war in which the two sides try to frighten each other with their words and weapons, but they do not fight
Which two countries opposed each other in the cold war?
The United States and Soviet Union
How was Germany divided after the end of WWII?
Germany was divided into four occupation zones. The Soviet Union controlled the eastern part of the country, while the U.S., Great Britain, and France controlled the zones in the western part. Berlin was also divided and occupied by the four countries
What type of government did Stalin want to establish in Eastern Europe?
communist government
What did the Truman Doctrine help to accomplish?
It helped stop the spread of communism
What type of government did Roosevelt and Churchill believe should be created in Eastern Europe?
Democracy
What is the name of the practice that Truman used to try and stop the spread of communism?
containment
What program provided economic aid for Europe?
The Marshall Plan
What international organization was proposed in 1945 to help prevent wars?
The United Nation (UN)
Which president helped form the UN?
Truman
Explain the purpose of the United Nations.
The UN was supposed to help prevent wars.
What was the crisis in Berlin?
Berlin was deep within the Soviet zone but it was part of the U.S., France, and Great Britain's zones. The US, France and Great Britain said they would unite there three zones but Stalin tried to block this. He put soldiers outside of West Berlin to stop supplies from coming into the city.
How did the US and Great Britain help the people of Berlin during the crisis?
The US and Great Britain organized an airlift and bypassed the Soviet soldiers.
Why was the North Atlantic Treaty organization or NATO formed?
The US, Canada, and 10 other countries agreed to help another if it was attacked.
What is the Warsaw Pact?
The Warsaw Pact was created in response to NATO. The Soviet Union created it. It included the communist governments in Eastern Europe.
What was Senator Joseph McCarthy's role in the New Red Scare?
He led the hunt for communists within the government. He accused many people of being spies, but often with no evidence. His accusations ruined people's lives, but eventually he went too far and he was seen as a bully.
What is McCarthyism
It describes a serious accusation without any evidence.
What did factories have to do after WWII ended?
They had to switch back to making products for everyday use.
What happened when the government ended price controls?
Prices began to rise. People began to spend more and more money on things they had not been able to get during the war.
Who won the presidential election of 1948?
President Truman
Explain President Truman's "Fair Deal" plan.
He wanted to fix the country's economic problems. He wanted the government to spend money. He wanted to use the money to create jobs, build housing, and create a health insurance system.
How did the Taft-Harley Act limit the power of labor unions?
It said that unions could not force a business to hire only union workers.
In 1947, congress passed the National Security Act (NSA) and it created the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). What is the purpose of the CIA?
The CIA would gather information about other countries and pass information to the president.
How did Truman try to end discrimination?
He ordered federal agencies to end job discrimination against African Americans. He ordered the armed forces to desegregate. He told the Justice Department to carry out any civil right laws.
After WWII, which countries divided the Korean Peninsula?
US and Soviet Union
How was the country of Korea split?
The Soviet Union controlled North Korea and the US controlled South Korea.
What is the capital of North Korea? South Korea?
NK: SK: Seoul
How did the Korean war begin?
The Korean War began when North Korea invaded South Korea in 1950.
Who invaded first? Who did they invade?
North Korea invaded South Korea.
What was the original goal of the UN forces in Korea?
...
Why did President Truman and the UN send troops to Korea?
To push back the North Korean troops
Who was the general in charge of the UN send troops to Korea?
General Douglas MacArthur
Why did President Truman fire General MacArthur
President Truman and MacArthur disagreed about what to do in the war. Truman did not want to drop the bomb because he thought it would make the war worse. MacArthur criticized the president. He fired him because of his disobedience.
The agreement to end the war set up a Demilitarized Zone between North and South Korea, what does this mean?
A place where no military forces are allowed.
Who was elected president in 1952?
Dwight Eisenhower
How did President Eisenhower want to change the federal government?
He wanted a smaller federal government. He cut the amount of money the government was allowed to spend.
Describe the economy of the US in the 1950s.
Consumers were able to buy new products due to new standards of living and credit cards.
What was the purpose of the Geneva Summit in 1955?
To lessen the tension between the Soviet Union and the US.
What was the arms race?
The US and the Soviet Union were in an arms race with each other. Both sides built more and more dangerous weapons.
What was the name of the world's first artificial satellite?
Sputnik
Which industry declined so much so that thousands of Appalachian people became poor?
the coal industry
What were some signs of affluence in the 1950s?
Many people moved out of the cities into the suburbs, highway system, economy boomed, and medicine improved.
What effect did the baby boom have on the US educational system?
More schools were needed
What were the suburbs and why were they built?
They were areas outside of big cities. They were built because more housing was needed.