History Final Exam Review
Terms in this set (96)
Children trace their ancestors through their mothers, young men inherit wealth and land from their mother's family, even in this society men hold positions of authority.
Belief that objects, such as plants and stones, or natural events, like thunderstorms and earthquakes, have a discrete spirit and conscious life.
Colony founded by Arabs
Trade route between Indian and Mediterranean.
Chronological order of West African Empires
Grew after the fall of Ghana. Became larger than Ghana.
Mali trading city along the Niger River that became a center of wealth and learning.
Most known for his pilgrimage to mecca. Captured Timbuktu. Had a lot of gold.
Geography of Africa
Flat, varied land features and climate, lots of natural resources, poor soildroughts, diseases, difficult to travel.
Gender in Africa
Combination of voice, instruments and drums. Repetition, choral, response.
A West African storyteller.
Stone complex built without mortar. Was the capital of a large state on the East African Coast.
He is a prophet. Received first revelation from the angel Gabriel in the Hira Cave in 610 A.D. Flees from Medina to Mecca in 622 A.D. Compiled into the Qur'an after his death. Founder of Islam.
Muhammad's migration from Mecca to Medina. Because he was being persecuted.
Book composed of divine revelations made to the Prophet Muhammad between ca. 610 A.D. and his death in 632 A.D.; the sacred text of the religion of Islam. "The sacred text of Islam."
Achievements of Umayyad Dynasty
Carried out the conquest of North Africa & Mediterranean and added Spain as a Muslim State. Unified the Empire and moved the captial to Damascus.
A pilgrimage to Mecca, performed as a duty by Muslims.
1. Shahadah-Say Allah is only God
3. Zakaat- Charity
A distinctive of Islamic art of fine handwriting, which became a central part of Islamic art. Calligraphy appears on the walls of mosques and is on many household objects.
Gender Relationships in Islam
Men are political heads of the family.
A supreme political and religious leader in a Muslim government.
Body of Islamic law that includes interpretation of the Quran and applies Islamic principles to everyday life.
City in western Arabia; birthplace of the Prophet Muhammad, and ritual center of the Islamic religion.
A Muslim place of worship.
Medicine, science, math, art and literature.
When Muhammad Died, he left no instructions for next ruler, so they split because of leadership.
(Islam) a fast (held from sunrise to sunset) that is carried out during the Islamic month of Ramadan (The 9th month of the Muslim calendar).
Central Teaching of Islam
Belief in one God, Allah.
MesoAmerica is a region that that includes the southern part of what is now Mexico and parts of northern countries of central America.
Terraced farming, system of writing, accurate calendar (365 days), concept of zero, large ceremonial temples and pyramids.
A Mayan ball game that had religious significance...They sacrificed the losing team.
Stone-paved Roads; Rope Suspension Bridges; Irrigation systems; Terraced Farming; Message Relay Network.
Fall of the Incan Empire
The conquest of the Spanish Conquistador Pizarro and the European diseases that they brought with them.
The first Mesoamerican civilization. Between 1200 and 400 B.C.E., the Olmec people of central Mexico created a vibrant civilization that included intensive agriculture, wide-ranging trade, ceremonial centers, and monumental construction (big stone heads).
Crops of MesoAmerica
Domesticated: Maize, beans, squash, & Llamas. "Pot irrigation"- dipped pots into wells & poured into fields. Chinampas-"hanging gardens"- piled up mud onto raised lands.
How Does One Become A Christian?
Convert-By baptism and renouncing all other beliefs and know Jesus as your only savior and salvation.
Mother=Virgin Mary, taught & preached about love, healed the sick & that he was the messiah, predicted his death crucified and resurrected.
(5 AD - 67 AD) Disciple of Jesus. One of the 12 apostles of Jesus; Roman Catholics consider him to be the first pope, bishop of Rome.
(11 AD - 67 AD) Used to be named Saul and persecuted the christians, later became one when light shined upon him and he became known as "Paul". Follower of Jesus who helped spread Christianity throughout the Roman world
(346 AD - 395 AD) Was the last emperor of the Roman emperor. 392 A.D. Made Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire. Banned the old Hellenistic and Roman religions.
(274 CE - 337 CE) Roman general Constantine ordered his soldiers to paint the cross on their shields-victory-credit to the Christian God. Emperor of Rome. Protector of the Christians.He issued the Edict of Milan which outlawed the persecution of Christians. He also founded the city of Constantinople, the future capital of the Byzantine Empire.
Edict of Milan
(313 AD) Constantine makes Christianity the primary religion of the Roman Empire.
Why Does Christianity Spread?
Promise of Future, Miracles, Moral Standards, Decentralized leadership of the early church.
Sacred rituals of the Roman Catholic Church.
Fulfilled the promise of a Messiah, Told the life story of Jesus Christ from birth to death, Revelation of how the Messiah will return.
Early groups who later influenced Roman culture.The Etruscans lived in the north of Italy. The Latins lived in the central planes.
Plebs and Patricians
Plebs were common farmers, artisans, and merchants who make up the majority of the population, they can vote, but cannot rule. Patricians were wealthy landowners, inherited power and strength.
Three Wars between Rome and Carthage.
1st War: Rome gains control of Sicily, Corsica & Sardinia.
2nd War: Hannibal (Carthage) Tries to make a comeback, but fails. Rome gets Spain.
3rd War: Rome destroys and conquered Carthage.
(330-1453) The eastern half of the Roman Empire, which survived after the fall of the Western Empire at the end of the 5th century A.D. Its capital was Constantinople, named after the Emperor Constantine.
Completed in 449 BCE, these civil laws developed by the Roman Republic to protect individual following demands by plebeians.
"Roman Peace", Document that made 200 years of peace and stability by making jobs, postal service, and giving free stuff. (Long era of peace and safety in the Roman Empire.)
Religious Practices Before Christianity
Polytheistic, foretelling of futures, adapted Greek Gods, leaders regarded as Gods.
Gais & Tiberious Gracchus were two Roman brothers who tried to reform Rome's social and political structure for the lower class.
A large amphitheater built in Rome around 70 A.D.; site of contests and combats between people and animals.
Organization of Roman Government
Two Consuls, Magistrates, Senate, "Balanced Government".
100-44 BC. Roman general who ended Roman Republic. Conquered Gaul with his powerful army. Made himself Roman dictator in 46 BC.
Decline of the Roman Empire
Political instability and use of mercenary armies undermined the security of the empire.
Formed Second Triumvirate in 43 B.C. with Antony and Lepidus after Caesar's death,reduced power of the Senate, began a period known as Pax Romana or Roman Peace.
Divided Empire into East and West, tried to get rid of Christianity, required all workers to stay in job for life.
Dynasty of Roman emperors that followed the dictatorship of Julius Caesar including Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, and Nero.
A political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them.
Characteristics of Hellenistic Art
Takes the nature of the body's form and expression to level of hyper-realism where the expression of the sculpture's face and body elicit an emotional response.
"Imitate the Greeks."
Achievements of Alexander the Great
Establishing the Greek Language, Greek culture, and the library at Alexandria.
Division after Alexander
1.Ptolemy- Egypt, Libya, part of Syria.
2. Seleucus-Syria, Mesopotamia, Iran, Afghanistan.
3. Antigonus-Macedonia, Greece.
4. Attalus- Pergamum.
Ancient Greece Olympics
Were a series of athletic competitions held for representatives of various city-states of Ancient Greece held in honor of Zeus; a political tool used by city-states to assert dominance over their rivals. Politicians would announce political alliances, and in times of war, priests would offer sacrifices to the gods for victory.
Golden Age of Athens
(4th Century BCE) Time of peace between the Persian and Peloponnesian Wars when Athenian leaders, especially Pericles, focused on cultural achievements wanting to make Athens a center for art and learning.
Civil war between greek city states, in which Athens ruled sea, and Sparta ruled land. Sparta's alliance with Persia led to Athen's defeat after 27 years of fighting.
Greatest theater of all time. Tragedy and Comedy, blend of myth, legend, philosophy, poetry, dance, music.
Trade in Greece
Allowed Greek ideas to spread, and allowed Greeks to learn about other cultures.
Results of the Persian wars
Vindication and validation of Greek freedom. Big, and powerful Athenian navy. Boom to Greek self-confidence. Golden age of Greece and the formation of the Delian League.
Characteristics of Greek Religion
Harmony, balance, order, and moderation, expressed the Greek belief in combining beauty and usefulness.
Way of teaching developed by Socrates that used a question-and-answer format to force students to use their reason to see things for themselves.
About 1,200 ships, anywhere from 70,000, to 130,000 men.
Loyal strong, Immortals and cavalry, 10,000 soldiers, cavalry went first, then Immortals.
A type of government used in Athens which is sort of a combine of majority rule and democracy.
(470-399 BCE) An Athenian philosopher who thought that human beings could lead honest lives and that honor was far more important than wealth, fame, or other superficial attributes. He created the Socratic Method.
(430-347 BCE) Was a disciple of Socrates whose cornerstone of thought was his theory of Forms, in which there was another world of perfection.
A Greek Philosopher, taught Alexander the Great, started a famous school, studied with Plato. A student of Socrates.
Athens vs Sparta
Sparta was more militaristic. Athens was more focused on education.
He was a Persian king, who began to conquer several neighboring kingdoms to Persia. He was a brilliant military general who was VERY successful from 550-539 BC.
A governor whom Darius installed to rule locally.
(521-486 B.C.E.) Persian ruler who brought order to the Persian Empire. He also built roads; established a postal system; and standardized weights, measures, coinage, added new Persian province, conquered Thrace in Europe, invaded Greek mainland, divided government into 20 provinces, made Persia into largest empire at the time.
A religion originating in ancient Iran with the prophet Zoroaster. It centered on a single benevolent deity-Ahura Mazda, Emphasizing truth-telling, purity, and reverence for nature, the religion demanded that humans choose sides between good and evil.
Main god of Zoroastrianism who represented truth and goodness.
Persian Empire Characteristics
They practiced tolerance and good government that brought order to their kingdom; they preserved ideas/culture from those they conquered.
Decline of the Persian Empire
After the death of Xerxes (486-464 B.C.E.) The Persians lacked any sort of strong leader. The Staraps started ruling as small kingdoms and waged war with each other. The taxes got to high.
The Second dynasty in China. This dynasty Developed dragon bones, lots of stories behind this dynasty, and some writing. Lasted from 1500-1100 BC
The Third dynasty in China. This dynasty developed literature, technology, farm tools, and weapons. Lasted from 1027-256 BC
Mandate of Heaven
A political theory developed during the Zhou Dynasty of ancient China in which those in power were believed to have the the right to rule from divine authority.
Emperor of the Qin. Conquered all states during the Warring States
Confucius's philosophy that he claimed to be the guide on how to properly live for all citizens.
A fortification 1,500 miles long built across northern China in the 3rd century BC.
Chinese philosophy based on the teachings of Laozi; taught that people should turn to nature and give up their worldly concerns.
Part of Confucianism, is about honoring and remembering family members who have died.
(551-479 BCE) Chinese philosopher and writer of The Analects, a collection of moral and social teachings, including the concept of the Five Relationships. Also known as Kong Fu Zi. Also the starter of Confucianism.