dominant allele

An allele that is always expressed (shown) if it is part of the genotype. (E.g. F)

recessive allele

An allele that is ONLY expressed (shown) if two are present (e.g. ff)

diploid cell

A cell which has two of each kind of chromosome.

haploid cell

A cell which has only one of each kind of chromosome (e.g. egg or sperm).

homozygous

Having two of the same alleles for a gene (e.g. ff, FF)

heterozygous

Having two different alleles for a gene (e.g. Ff)

genotype

The allele combination of an organism (e.g. Ff, ff, FF)

phenotype

The features expressed from the genotype. (e.g. blonde or black hair)

mutations

When the genetic code changes

cystic fibrosis

Caused by an unusual protein that makes too much mucus in the lungs.

mutagens

agents, such as chemicals or radiation, that damage or alter genetic material (DNA) in cells

replication

(genetics) the process whereby DNA makes a copy of itself before cell division

gametes

Reproductive cells, called ova and sperm)

genetics

The study of heredity

hereditary

Passing on of characteristics from parents to offsprings.

nitrogen bases

The chemicals that make up the rungs (steps) of the DNA ladder - adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine

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