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dominant allele

An allele that is always expressed (shown) if it is part of the genotype. (E.g. F)

recessive allele

An allele that is ONLY expressed (shown) if two are present (e.g. ff)

diploid cell

A cell which has two of each kind of chromosome.

haploid cell

A cell which has only one of each kind of chromosome (e.g. egg or sperm).


Having two of the same alleles for a gene (e.g. ff, FF)


Having two different alleles for a gene (e.g. Ff)


The allele combination of an organism (e.g. Ff, ff, FF)


The features expressed from the genotype. (e.g. blonde or black hair)


When the genetic code changes

cystic fibrosis

Caused by an unusual protein that makes too much mucus in the lungs.


agents, such as chemicals or radiation, that damage or alter genetic material (DNA) in cells


(genetics) the process whereby DNA makes a copy of itself before cell division


Reproductive cells, called ova and sperm)


The study of heredity


Passing on of characteristics from parents to offsprings.

nitrogen bases

The chemicals that make up the rungs (steps) of the DNA ladder - adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine

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