16 terms

Genetics # 3 (2016-17)

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dominant allele
An allele that is always expressed (shown) if it is part of the genotype. (E.g. F)
recessive allele
An allele that is ONLY expressed (shown) if two are present (e.g. ff)
diploid cell
A cell which has two of each kind of chromosome.
haploid cell
A cell which has only one of each kind of chromosome (e.g. egg or sperm).
homozygous
Having two of the same alleles for a gene (e.g. ff, FF)
heterozygous
Having two different alleles for a gene (e.g. Ff)
genotype
The allele combination of an organism (e.g. Ff, ff, FF)
phenotype
The features expressed from the genotype. (e.g. blonde or black hair)
mutations
When the genetic code changes
cystic fibrosis
Caused by an unusual protein that makes too much mucus in the lungs.
mutagens
agents, such as chemicals or radiation, that damage or alter genetic material (DNA) in cells
replication
(genetics) the process whereby DNA makes a copy of itself before cell division
gametes
Reproductive cells, called ova and sperm)
genetics
The study of heredity
hereditary
Passing on of characteristics from parents to offsprings.
nitrogen bases
The chemicals that make up the rungs (steps) of the DNA ladder - adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine