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an architectual feature of immense importance in light capture


the very specialized mutualistic associations between roots and fungi

transport proteins

require energy to function

proton pumps

the most important transport proteins in active transport in plant cells

membrane potential

another form of potential energy that can be harnessed to perform cellular work


a transport protein couples the diffusion of one solute with active transport of another


the diffusion of water across a membrane

water potential

a quantity where the combined effects of solute concentration and physical pressure are incorporated


what plant biologists measure units of pressure in

solute potential

is proportional to its molarity

osmotic potential

another word for solute potential

pressure potential

the physical pressure on a solution

turgor pressure

when the cell contents press the plasma membrane against the cell wall, and the cell wall, in turn, presses against the protoplast


a result to loosing water


shrinks and pulls away from the cell


a walled cell with a greater solute concentration than its surroundings


when leaves and stems droop as a result of cells losing water


transport proteins that facilitate the diffusion


the continuum formed by cell walls, extracellular spaces, and the dead interiors of tracheids and vessels


when the cell wall forms a continuum


cytoplasmic channels that connect the cytoplasm of neighboring cells

bulk flow

the movement of fluid driven by pressure


the innermost layer of cells in the root cortex, surrounds the stele and functions as a last checkpoint for the selective passage of minerals from the cortex into the vasculas tissue

casparian strip

a belt made of suberin, a waxy material impervious to water and dissolved minerals

xylem sap

the water and dissolved minerals in the xylem, gets transported long distances by bulk flow to the veins that branch through each leaf


the loss of water vapor from leaves and other aerial parts of the plant

root pressure

a push of xylem sap


the exudation of water droplets that can be seen in the morning on the tips or edges of some plant leaves

circadian rhythms

cycles with intervals of approximately 24 hours


another tissue the transports the products of photosynthesis

phloem sap

the aqueous solution that flows through sieve tubes

sugar source

a plant organ that is a net producer of sugar

sugar sink

an organ that is a net consumer of depository of sugar

transfer cells

in some plants, the walls of the companion cells feature many ingrowths, enhancing the solute transfer between apoplast and symplast


changes that spread throughout the body, affecting many or all of the body's systems or organs

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