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35 terms

Ch. 36 AP Bio Resource Acquisition and Transport in Vascular Plants

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phyllotaxy
an architectual feature of immense importance in light capture
mycorrhizae
the very specialized mutualistic associations between roots and fungi
transport proteins
require energy to function
proton pumps
the most important transport proteins in active transport in plant cells
membrane potential
another form of potential energy that can be harnessed to perform cellular work
cotransport
a transport protein couples the diffusion of one solute with active transport of another
osmosis
the diffusion of water across a membrane
water potential
a quantity where the combined effects of solute concentration and physical pressure are incorporated
megapascals
what plant biologists measure units of pressure in
solute potential
is proportional to its molarity
osmotic potential
another word for solute potential
pressure potential
the physical pressure on a solution
turgor pressure
when the cell contents press the plasma membrane against the cell wall, and the cell wall, in turn, presses against the protoplast
flaccid
a result to loosing water
plasmolysis
shrinks and pulls away from the cell
turgid
a walled cell with a greater solute concentration than its surroundings
wilting
when leaves and stems droop as a result of cells losing water
aquaporins
transport proteins that facilitate the diffusion
appolast
the continuum formed by cell walls, extracellular spaces, and the dead interiors of tracheids and vessels
symplast
when the cell wall forms a continuum
plasnidesmata
cytoplasmic channels that connect the cytoplasm of neighboring cells
bulk flow
the movement of fluid driven by pressure
endodermis
the innermost layer of cells in the root cortex, surrounds the stele and functions as a last checkpoint for the selective passage of minerals from the cortex into the vasculas tissue
casparian strip
a belt made of suberin, a waxy material impervious to water and dissolved minerals
xylem sap
the water and dissolved minerals in the xylem, gets transported long distances by bulk flow to the veins that branch through each leaf
transpiration
the loss of water vapor from leaves and other aerial parts of the plant
root pressure
a push of xylem sap
guttation
the exudation of water droplets that can be seen in the morning on the tips or edges of some plant leaves
circadian rhythms
cycles with intervals of approximately 24 hours
translocation
another tissue the transports the products of photosynthesis
phloem sap
the aqueous solution that flows through sieve tubes
sugar source
a plant organ that is a net producer of sugar
sugar sink
an organ that is a net consumer of depository of sugar
transfer cells
in some plants, the walls of the companion cells feature many ingrowths, enhancing the solute transfer between apoplast and symplast
systemic
changes that spread throughout the body, affecting many or all of the body's systems or organs