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40 terms

Middle Ages

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Pepin the Short
o The son of Charles Martel
o Became the Merovingian kingdom's joint mayor of the palace with his brother Carloman
o overthrew Childeric the third & claimed the Frankish throne
o He established the Carolingians-a new line of Frankish rulers
Charles Martel
o Pepin I's son
o Known as Charles the hammer
o Became mayor of the palace
o Defeated Spanish Moors when they invaded France
o Slowed the Muslim's advance
Leif Ericson
o Viking that sailed around America
o Settled in Canada
o Tried to settle in Greenland
Louis the Pious
o Charlemagne's son
o Weak ruler, educated & religious
Clovis
o King of the Frankish tribe
o Military leader
o Controlled all of north Gaul
o Became Christian & got support from the Christian church
Eric the Red
o Leif Ericson's father
o Discovered Greenland
Pope Leo III
declared Charlemagne king
Pope Benedict
o Thought monasteries were corrupt
o Made a monastery at Monte Cassino in the Italian mountains
o Put an abbot at the head of the monasteries
Charlemagne
o Worked to build a "new Rome"
o Devout Christian
o He brought order
o Spent most of his life at war
o Defeated the Lombards in Italy
o "Emperor of the Romans"
Shires
governmental districts divided by the Angle-Saxons
Common law
law based on customs of judges' decisions, rather than written codes
Cannon law
The Church's own laws, code of laws for the clergy
• Problems between church and kings
battle for power, corruption
Phillip II
o Was good at conquering English land
o Captured Normandy & Maine
o Trained officials on how to run the government
o Extended power of courts
Estates General
o Involved in Philip IV's government
o Made up three major social classes in France
Parliament
o House of Lords and House of Commons
Trial by Jury
o a fair trial with a 12 person jury
Thomas Beckett
o archbishop of Canterbury
o Refused to allow his clergy to be tried in royal courts
o Becket vs. Henry II
o Knights killed Becket in the Canterbury Cathedral
o Canterbury became a major pilgrimage sight
Henry II
o created circuits & made decisions to increase royal authority &
Henry I
o William the Conqueror's son
o He became ruler
o Was a capable ruler
o Set up exchequer department
o It handled finances
o Made traveling judges
o Weakened federal lords because the King's royal court dispensed justice
King John
o Henry II's son
o Taxed nobles
o Signed the Magna Carta
o Great council became part of the English Parliament
Magna Carta
Protected the liberties of the nobles and provided a limited outline of rights for England's ordinary people.
Edward I
o When the Danish line died out, he was chosen as successor.
o Part Anglo-Saxon & part Norman
o Died without an heir
Hugh Capet
o Succeeded Luis Sluggard
o King of France
o Started the Capetian dynasty
o Ruled only IIe-de-France
o Members of the dynasty wanted to expand
Philip IV
o Philip the Fair
o Strong ruler
o Increased royal power
o Arrested Pope Boniface
Eleanor of Aquitaine
o Henry II's wife who brought French land to him with their marriage which later caused problems
Alfred the Great
o Took the throne when the Germanic tribes were moving in
o Stopped the Vikings from taking over
o A treaty was made to let the Danes live in Northumbria & Mercia & to govern themselves
William the Conqueror
o Norman
o Defeated Harold @ The Battle of Hastings
o He won
o Created the Doomsday book(counted the shire's people so they could tax them accordingly)
o Cruel & Barbaric
o Made traveling judges
o Weakened federal lords
Pope Boniface VII
o Phillip IV questioned him and he was arrested
Sacraments
o A religious ceremony that gives grace
Tithe
o monastery donation made by the clergy
o required to pay 1/10 of their income
o this made the church the wealthiest institution in Europe
Monasticism
o the life of monks & nuns in monasteries & convents
Heretics
o those whose views differed from the church
o They were excommunicated
Treaty of Verdun
o Made when Louis died
o his sons lothair, charles the bald, and louis the german, divided the empire among themselves
Curia
o group of counselors & the most powerful members were the cardinals
Abbott
o The head of a nunnery
Abbess
o The head of a monastery
Fief
o piece of land held under the feudal system
Feudal system
o The king held supreme authority.
o Brought to England by William
o Based on the holding of land
o Social system
1) Lords
2) Vassals
3) Knights
4) Poor people
Manors
o An estate of a lord