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Pepin the Short

o The son of Charles Martel
o Became the Merovingian kingdom's joint mayor of the palace with his brother Carloman
o overthrew Childeric the third & claimed the Frankish throne
o He established the Carolingians-a new line of Frankish rulers

Charles Martel

o Pepin I's son
o Known as Charles the hammer
o Became mayor of the palace
o Defeated Spanish Moors when they invaded France
o Slowed the Muslim's advance

Leif Ericson

o Viking that sailed around America
o Settled in Canada
o Tried to settle in Greenland

Louis the Pious

o Charlemagne's son
o Weak ruler, educated & religious


o King of the Frankish tribe
o Military leader
o Controlled all of north Gaul
o Became Christian & got support from the Christian church

Eric the Red

o Leif Ericson's father
o Discovered Greenland

Pope Leo III

declared Charlemagne king

Pope Benedict

o Thought monasteries were corrupt
o Made a monastery at Monte Cassino in the Italian mountains
o Put an abbot at the head of the monasteries


o Worked to build a "new Rome"
o Devout Christian
o He brought order
o Spent most of his life at war
o Defeated the Lombards in Italy
o "Emperor of the Romans"


governmental districts divided by the Angle-Saxons

Common law

law based on customs of judges' decisions, rather than written codes

Cannon law

The Church's own laws, code of laws for the clergy

• Problems between church and kings

battle for power, corruption

Phillip II

o Was good at conquering English land
o Captured Normandy & Maine
o Trained officials on how to run the government
o Extended power of courts

Estates General

o Involved in Philip IV's government
o Made up three major social classes in France


o House of Lords and House of Commons

Trial by Jury

o a fair trial with a 12 person jury

Thomas Beckett

o archbishop of Canterbury
o Refused to allow his clergy to be tried in royal courts
o Becket vs. Henry II
o Knights killed Becket in the Canterbury Cathedral
o Canterbury became a major pilgrimage sight

Henry II

o created circuits & made decisions to increase royal authority &

Henry I

o William the Conqueror's son
o He became ruler
o Was a capable ruler
o Set up exchequer department
o It handled finances
o Made traveling judges
o Weakened federal lords because the King's royal court dispensed justice

King John

o Henry II's son
o Taxed nobles
o Signed the Magna Carta
o Great council became part of the English Parliament

Magna Carta

Protected the liberties of the nobles and provided a limited outline of rights for England's ordinary people.

Edward I

o When the Danish line died out, he was chosen as successor.
o Part Anglo-Saxon & part Norman
o Died without an heir

Hugh Capet

o Succeeded Luis Sluggard
o King of France
o Started the Capetian dynasty
o Ruled only IIe-de-France
o Members of the dynasty wanted to expand

Philip IV

o Philip the Fair
o Strong ruler
o Increased royal power
o Arrested Pope Boniface

Eleanor of Aquitaine

o Henry II's wife who brought French land to him with their marriage which later caused problems

Alfred the Great

o Took the throne when the Germanic tribes were moving in
o Stopped the Vikings from taking over
o A treaty was made to let the Danes live in Northumbria & Mercia & to govern themselves

William the Conqueror

o Norman
o Defeated Harold @ The Battle of Hastings
o He won
o Created the Doomsday book(counted the shire's people so they could tax them accordingly)
o Cruel & Barbaric
o Made traveling judges
o Weakened federal lords

Pope Boniface VII

o Phillip IV questioned him and he was arrested


o A religious ceremony that gives grace


o monastery donation made by the clergy
o required to pay 1/10 of their income
o this made the church the wealthiest institution in Europe


o the life of monks & nuns in monasteries & convents


o those whose views differed from the church
o They were excommunicated

Treaty of Verdun

o Made when Louis died
o his sons lothair, charles the bald, and louis the german, divided the empire among themselves


o group of counselors & the most powerful members were the cardinals


o The head of a nunnery


o The head of a monastery


o piece of land held under the feudal system

Feudal system

o The king held supreme authority.
o Brought to England by William
o Based on the holding of land
o Social system
1) Lords
2) Vassals
3) Knights
4) Poor people


o An estate of a lord

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