89 terms

AP Human Geography Unit 5 Notecards

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Agrarian
characteristic of farmers or their way of life
agribusiness
highly mechanized, large-scale farming, usually under corporate ownership
agriculture
the cultivation of domesticated crops and the raising of domesticated animals
aquaculture
the cultivation of aquatic organisms (as fish or shellfish) especially for food
biotechnology
any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives there of, to make or modify products or processes for specific use
cadastral system
survey system that determines the value extent, and ownership of land for purposes of taxation
cerial grain / stable grains
maize, wheat, and rice are the most produced gains worldwide
collective farms
regards a system of agricultural organization where as farms laborers are not compensated via wages. rather, the workers receive a share of the farm's net productivity
commercial agriculture
used to describe large scale farming and racnhing operations that employ vast land bases, large mechanized equipment, factory-type labor forces, and the latest technology
commodity chains
a sequential process used by firms to gather resources, transform them into goods or commodities and finially distribute them to customers
intensive agriculture
expenditure of much labor and capital on a piece of land to increase its productivity
extensive agriculture
use of little labor and capital to increase agricultural productivity
crop rotation
the practice of rotating the use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid exausting the soil
dairying
an animal husbandry enterprise, raising female cattle, goats, or certain other lactating livestock for long-term production of milk which may be either processed onsite or transported to a dairy for processing and eventually retail sale
debt for nature swamp
an agreement between a developing nation in debt and one or more of its creditors. Creditors agree to forgive debts in return for environmental protection
domestication hearths for plants and animals
a part of the world where plant or animal domestication occurs on a large scale
double cropping
a second crop is planted after the first has been harvested
economic activity
the types of jobs that are necessary to have in the world
primary economic activity
(extractive sector) concerned with the direct extraction of natural resources from the environment
secondary econmic activity
(manufacturing sector) processing of products and assembling raw minerals
teritiary economic activity
(service sector) provides us with transportation, communication, and utillities
quaternary economic activity
concerned with the collection, processing, and manipulation of data and capitol
quinary economic activity
require a high level of specialized knowledge or technical skill
environmental modifications
changes made to the environment
chemical farming
increased use of fertilizers with nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium
pesticides
any substance or mixture of substances intended for preventing, destroying, repelling, or migrating any pest
herbicides
type of pesticide used to kill unwanted plants
fertilizer
any substance, such as manure, or a mixture of nitrates, added to soil or water to increase its productivity
soil erosion
the washing away of soil by the flow of water
shifting cultivation
cultivation of crops in tropical forest clearings in which forest vegetation has been removed by cutting and burning
slash - and - burn
cultivation of crops in tropical forest clearings in which forest vegetation has been removed by cutting and burning
milpa
cultivation of crops in tropical forest clearings in which forest vegetation has been removed by cutting and burning
swidden
a patch of land cleared for planting through slashing and burning
nomadic herding
the continual movement of livestock in search of forage for animals
pastoralism
the continual movement of livestock in search of forage for animals
extractive industry
industries involved in the activities of: prospecting and exploring for a nonrenewable resource, getting them, further exploring them, developing them, or extracting them from the earth
feedlot
a factory-like farm devoted to either livestock fattening or dairying
first agricultural revolution
dating back 10,000 years, it achieved plant domestication and animal domestication
fishing
the activity of hunting for fish by hooking, trapping, or gathering animals not classifiable as insects which breathe in water or pass their lives in water
food chain
the feeding relationships between species
forestry
the art, science, and practice of studing and managing forests and plantations and related natural resources
genetically modified organisms (GMO)
organisms whose genes have been modified to increase things such as control over it, predictability, and efficiency
globalized agriculture
diffusion of agriculture across the globe
green revolution
rapid diffusion of new agricultural technology, especially new high-yield seeds and fertilizer
horticulture
the art or science of cultivation fruits, vegetables, flowers. or ornamental plants
intertillage
the manual clearing of rows in the field though the use of hoes, rakes, and other manual equipment
livestock ranching
a commercial type of agriculture that produces fattened cattle and hogs for meat
luxury crops
specialized crops not typically not essential to human survival
market gardening
the relatively small-scale production of fruits, vegtables, and flowers as cash crops, frequently sold directly to consumers and restaurants
Mediterranean agriculture
accounts for virtually all olive oil produced worldwide, 60% of wine production, 45% of grape production, 25% of dried nuts, 20% of citrus production, and about 12% of total cereal production
milkshed
a region producing milk for a specific community
mineral fuels
are hydrocarbons, primarily coal, fuel oil, or natural gas formed from the remains of dead plants and animals
monoculture
producing or growing one crop over a wide area
organic agriculture
approach to farming and raching that avoids the use of herbicides, pesticides, growth hormones, and other similar synthetic inputs
paddy
a small flooded field enclosed by mud dikes
pasture
land covered with grass or herbage and grazed by or suitable for grazing livestock
planned economy
economic system in which a single agency makes all decisions about the production and allocation of goods and services
plantation agriculture
a system of mnoculture for producing export crops requiring relatively large amounts of land and capitol
primogeniture
system in which the eldest son in a large family (or daughter if necessary) inherits all of the dying parent's land
reaper
a machine for cutting standing grain
renewable resource
can be replaced without a long wait time
non-renewable resource
a resource that must be depleted to be used
ridge tillage
contemporary and traditional cropping system in which plants grow on a hill or a band
rural settlement
sparsely settled places away from the influence of large cities
dispersed settlements
a type of settlement from where people live relatively distant from each other
nucleated settlements
a relatively dense settlement form
building material
wood, brick, stone, wattle, grass, and bush
village forms
linear- tightly packed, need land for farming
cluster- may have began as a hamlet, then further developed
round- keep animals inside, houses surrounding them
walled- farm villages fortified for protection
grid- easy to get around in, modern
sawah
a wet rice field
second agricultural revolution
included improved methods of cultivation, harvesting, and storage of farm produce
specialization
where individuals become experts in producing certain goods or services that are then exchanged
spring wheat
wheat planted in the spring
winter wheat
wheat planted in the fall, harvested in spring
subsistence agriculture
self-sufficient agriculture that is smallscale and low technology and emphasizes food production for local consumption, not trade
extensive subsistence agriculture
use of little labor and capital to increase agricultural productivity
intensive subsistence agriculture
expenditure of much labor and capitol to increase agricultural productivity
suitcase farm
an american commercial grain agriculture, a farm on which no one lives
survey patterns
patterns used to survey the land on Earth
long lots
houses erected on narrow lots perpendicular to a long river, so that each original settler had equal river access
metes - and - bounds
uses physical features of the local geography, along with directions and distances to define the bounaries of a perpendicular piece of land
township - and - range
land is divided into six-mile square blocks (township), which is then divided into one-mile square blocks (range), which are also further divided
sustainable yield
ecological yield that can be extracted without reducing the base of the capital itself, the surplus required to maintain nature's services at the same time, or increasing level over time
third agricultural revolution
mechanization, chemical farming, and food manufacturing
"tragedy of the commons"
class of social trap that involve a conflict over resources between individual interests and the common good
Transhumance
a seasonal periodic movement of pastorialists and their livestock between highland and lowland pastures
truck farm
commercial gardening and fruit farming so named because the word was a middle English word meaning bartering of the exchange of commodities
wattle
an organization of interwoven plant materials used as a fence, preventing sedimentation by runoff and erosion
wet rice
rice grown on arable, wet paddy fields
winnow
a device that separates grain from the chaff (from the plant)