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DevOps Intro Midterm Study
Terms in this set (69)
DevOps can have a huge impact on ___.
Traditional ways of conducting operations, software architecture, and team structure
Deployment scripts is different from application code.
; deployment scripts have same set of practices as application code
One category of DevOps practices identified in the textbook is to treat Ops as first-class citizens from the point of view of ___.
Among several DevOps team roles, ___ is responsible to maintain and communicate the vision for the service assigned to develop by the team.
DevOps is a set of ___ intended to reduce the ___ between committing a change to a system and the change being placed into normal production, while ensuring high ___. This is how DevOps is defined in textbook, which focuses on the ___, rather than the means.
practices, time, quality, goals
Releasing a new system or version of an existing system to customers is one of the most sensitive steps in the software development cycle. This is only true the system or version is for external distribution or is used directly by consumers, but not strictly for internal use.
; It does cause concern if strictly for internal use as well
One reason that organizations have processes to ensure smooth releases is that coordination does not always happen in an appropriate manner. This is one of the complaints that motivated the DevOps movement.
; ensure smooth releases
The DevOps movement is taking an approach different from traditional IT management. This approach is to reduce the need for dedicated ___ personnel through ___ many of the tasks formerly done by these people and having ___ assume a portion of the remainder.
operations, automating, developers
DevOps is a word that is used to describe a set of modern IT practices which seek to more closely bring together software
erations staff to work on the same project in a more ___ manner. This effort will ideally lead to shorter ___ which ideally may save time and money, and give the organization a competitive edge against others.
collaborative, development cycles
Typically, we have to revisit previous phases or start over with analysis; that is, the development process is ___. In each iteration, the current models are being further refined and extended. As a consequence, the development process is also ___.
Which are characteristics of the cloud defined by NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology)?
Resourcing pooling, rapid elasticity, broad network access
The CRM of Salesforce.com is a good example of ___.
Software as a Service (SaaS)
In cloud computing, a virtual machine (VM) is an emulation of a physical machine.
; VM is an emulation
When a user issues a command to create a VM, they must also decide on which physical machine to create the VM instance.
; no need to decide on which physical machine
Which is a reason for a DNS (Domain Name System) server to return two or more IP addresses for a single URL?
Testing, reliability, performance
In cloud computing, a VM ___ is a file that contains a bootable operating system and some software installed on it.
Simple requests such as computation, reading a file, or receiving a local message will have a distribution closer tonormal. Complicated requests such as extensive map-reduce jobs, searchesacross a large database, or launching virtual instances will have a skewed distribution such as a ___.
The cloud has emerged as a major trend in IT during recent years. One of its characteristics is allowing the scaling out of an application to virtually infinite numbers of VMs.
; cloud emeged as a major trend
Within large distributed environments, failure of the individual components is no longer to be expected if cloud technology is applied and architected properly.
; distributed failure is always expected
Using the cloud provides better security for information systems because IP addresses are not the key mechanism for accessing the virtualized resources.
; IP addresses ARE the key mechanism to access
The operational considerations associated with a shared file system such as HDFS are twofold. (1) Who manages the HDFS ___, and (2) how is the ___ stored within HDFS protected in the case of a disaster?
The term 'HDFS' used in Chapter 2 stands for ___ Distributed ___ System. It acts as a network-wide file system and automatically maintains ___ of data items to protect against failure.
Hadoop, File, replicas
What type of service is the consumer provided the capability to deploy onto the cloud infrastructure consumer-created or acquired applications created using programming languages, libraries, services, and tools supported by the provider?
Platform as a Service (PaaS)
Which are examples of Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)?
Network, VM, load balancers
Three of the unique aspects of the cloud that impact DevOps are: the ability to create and switch ___ simply, the ability to create ___ easily, and the management of ___.
environments, VMs, databases
ITIL standards for ___.
Information Technology Infrastructure Library
The ITIL service life cycle consists of service strategy, service design, service ___, service operation, and continual service improvement.
The service level agreements (SLAs) introduced in this chapter indicates that Ops has traditionally been responsible for ensuring that an organization meets its external SLAs. Internal SLAs are normally handled by non-Ops units such as Dev.
; Ops do internal SLAs
When designing a service, considerations should include what?
of the service, the
implications for capacity
governance and management structures
for the service, and the
business continuity implications
of the service
With cloud elasticity, the pay-as-you-go model, and the ease of provisioning new virtual hardware, capacity planning is becoming more about run time monitoring and ___ rather than planning for purchasing hardware.
If a recovery solution takes 8 minutes to access the backup in a separate datacenter and another 6 minutes to instantiate new servers using the backed-up data, the RTO is ___ minutes.
DevOps and continuous deployment require the implementation part of service transition to be highly automated so it can deal with high-frequency transition and provide better quality control.
, not the deployment
Events of interest during service operation include what?
Software license usage, Status information from systems, Performance metrics from applications, and Security information
The seven-step process suggested by ITIL for continual service improvement is a ___-driven process.
One method of viewing the relationship between DevOps and ITIL is that DevOps provides continuous ___ of the various ITIL services rather than requiring those services to be packaged into a major release.
One difference between ITIL's service transition and the DevOps approach is that DevOps assumes fairly large release packages where careful planning, change management, and so on are feasible—in contrast to the high-frequency small releases encountered in typical ITIL scenarios.
; ITIL assumes, contrast to DevOps scenarios
ITIL provides general guidance for the activities of not only Ops but Dev.
; only Ops
Dev is responsible for capacity planning for individual applications, and Ops is responsible for overall capacity planning.
; Dev responsible for individual, Ops responsible for overall
Continual service improvement
's main focus is to achieve better alignment between IT services and ___ needs—whether the needs have changed or are the same.
The DevOps goal of minimizing coordination among various teams can be achieved by using a ___ architectural style where the coordination mechanism, the resource management decisions, and the mapping of architectural elements are all specified by the ___ and hence require minimal inter-team coordination.
Amazon's rules for teams
require all teams to expose their data and functionality by reading each other team's datastore directly to avoid time consuming inter-team communication.
; service interfaces, not datastore
If a web page is implemented by a collection of microservices, then its scalability should be managed by the infrastructure of the entire web system,not each individual service, and should be independent to its SLA.
; managed by the service owner
We should prevent likely changes from rippling through a service by reducing its modules that implement the interfaces.
Encapsulating either the affected portions of a likely change or the interactions that might cause ripple effects of a change is a good method for making a service run faster.
; it's a maintenance method, not to speed up
The main reason of making multiple instances of a service be available is to support a load too heavy for a single instance and to guard against failure.
; make multiple instances
In order to remove the inter-team coordination, a design decision of system architecture should be made to allow each component to be allocated to a single (virtual) machine or container but avoid multiple components to be allocated to a single (virtual) machine.
; or allows multiple components, not avoid
An organization can introduce
without major architectural modifications.
; introduce continuous deployment
Two methods are discussed in Chapter 4 for managing demand on the service from client requests. One is to monitor ___ and the other possible technique is to use ___ to control the number of instances.
is the DevOps practice that leads to the most far-reaching architectural modifications.
; far-reaching modifications
Name three correct possibilities that exist for the controlling component.
A service itself can be responsible for (de)provisioning additional instances,
Amazon's autoscaling groups in collaboration with its CloudWatch monitoring system can (de)provision an instance when the load reaches a given threshold,
A client or a component in the client chain can be responsible for (de)provisioning instances of a service.
Netflix Eureka is an example of a cloud service registry that acts as a ___ server.
What could be a source for dependability problems of a system?
Possible failure of an instance of a service
An important trend in DevOps is to manage all the code and parameters for setting up an environment just as you manage your application code, with proper version control and testing. This is an example of "___-as-code".
The CDC testing practice requires the test cases for testing a microservice to be decided and even co-owned by all the ___ of that microservice.
___ is the step in which the built executable artifact is tested.
Which are examples of post-deployment error?
Version dependencies existing among the components,
parameters for dependent systems set incorrectly, and
a developer connected test code to a production database.
___ are a subset of the automated acceptance tests that are used to quickly analyze if a new commit breaks some of the core functions of the application.
Deployment pipeline does not contain the step of what?
The best way to determine if the system behaves in a defined way when assumptions about the environment hold or the user performs actions in the right order with the right inputs are not met is to run what?
is a configuration management tool that can be used to maintain traceability of errors because of its capability of keeping track of all changes it applies to a machine.
; Chef used to maintain traceability of errors
is a distributed version control system. Using its
command, changes from the server are synchronized with the local repository.
command, not push
can be implemented by a "
" statement with a global Boolean variable.
statement, not try-catch
The language you wish to expose to the user is an example of configuration setting (or parameter).
; language configuration setting
An architect involved in a DevOps project should ensure feature toggles are removed when the code they toggle has been placed into production and been judged to be successfully deployed.
; ensure feature toggles are removed
___ testing is a mechanism to continue to test even after placing a system in production or promoting it to normal production.
A ___ consists of the steps that are taken between a developer committing code and the code actually being promoted into normal production, while ensuring high quality.
Controlling tools by scripts is far better than controlling tools by commands.The scripts and associated configuration parameters should also be kept under version control, just as the application code. This new movement is called ___.
infrastructure as code
Development at Google is ___-based rather than ___-based. Instead of reintegrating a big branch, their developers deal with integration issues at each ___, which is a simpler solution, but requires more frequent action than using branches.
trunk, branch, commit
Before writing the actual code for a piece of functionality, you develop an automated test for it. Then the functionality is developed, with the goal of fulfilling the test. This philosophy is called ___.
test driven development
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
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