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Sports Psych Mid-term
Terms in this set (83)
Sport and exercise psychology is the scientific study of
the behavior of people engaged in sport and exercise activities and the application of the knowledge gained.
the 1st major objective of sport and exercise psychology is
to understand how the psychological factors affect a person's motor performance
the 2nd major objective of sport and exercise psychology is
to understand how participating in physical activity affects a person's psychological development
What roles do contemporary sport and exercise psychologists engage in?
consulting with athletes and exercisers
Clinical sport and exercise psychologists are specifically trained to treat
athletes and exercisers who have severe emotional problems
educational sport and exercise psychology specialists educate
athletes and exercisers about psychological skills and their development
1st period of Sport Psychology
- Cyclists groups had better times than individually
- First person to do an experiment with children fishing individually vs in a group
2nd period of Sport Psychology
- Father of American Sports Psychology
- made the first sports psych lab in the US
3rd period of Sport Psychology
PREP FOR FUTURE
-UC - Berkley Professor of Physical Education -- established a graduate studies program of psychological studies of physical activity
-He devoted his career to the scholarly study of the psychological aspects of sport and motor skill acquisition
-Some of his students went on to develop the field of physical education and kinesiology
4th period of Sport Psychology
ESTABLISHMENT OF THE ACADEMIC DISCIPLINE
- called the father of North American applied sport psychology
5th period of Sport Psychology
MULTIDISCIPLINARY SCIENCE AND PRACTICE
- Penn state professor
- Advanced the cause of both women and sport psychology by helping to establish the PSU graduate program in sport psychology
- First woman to be awarded a Fulbright Fellowship in sport psychology, and the first female president of the North American Society of Sport Psychology and Physical Activity
6th period of Sport Psychology
CONTEMPORARY SPORT & EXERCISE
- 2000: The journal Psychology of Sport and Exercise is developed and published in Europe.
- Exercise psychology flourishes, especially in university environments, driven by external funding possibilities and its utility in facilitating wellness and holding down health care costs.
Strong, diverse, and sustained research programs are evident around the world.
Interest in applied sport psychology continues to increase.
What training is required of a clinical sport and exercise psychologists?
Trained specifically to treat athletes and exercisers with severe emotional disorders (Ex// substance abuse or anorexia)
What training is required of Educational sport psychology specialists?
Trained to serve as mental coaches, educating athletes and exercisers about psychological skills and their development. NOT clinically trained.
What role have women played in the history of sport and exercise psych?
-women were not always given credit or recognized
- 8 U.S. women, recognized by Krane and Whaley, greatly influenced the development of the field
is a set of interrelated facts presenting a systematic view of some phenomenon in order to describe, explain, and predict its future.
What is the main advantage of conducting scientific experiments over conducting studies?
Determining causal relationships
What are the approaches taken to sport and exercise psychology?
Psychophysiological, Social-psychological, cognitive-behavioral orientations
What should be known to effectively guide a practice?
Professional practice knowledge through experience integrated with scientific knowledge
What focuses on the use of general scientific principles?
The art of teaching and coaching
In bridging the gap of research to practice, researchers measure the effects of their studies relative to which model?
Believes that the best way to study behavior during sport and exercise is to examine the physiological processes of the brain and their influences on physical activity.
assume that behavior is determined by a complex interaction between the environment (especially social) and the personal makeup of the athlete or exerciser.
Cognitive - Behavioral Orientation
Emphasize the athlete's or exerciser's cognitions or thoughts and behaviors and believe that thought is central in determining behavior.
an investigator observes or assesses factors without changing the environment in any way
the investigator manipulates the variables along with observing them and then examines how changes in one variable affect changes in others.
Strengths of scientifically derived knowledge
highly reliable, systematic and controlled, objective and unbiased
Limitations of scientifically derived knowledge
reductionistic, conservative, often slow to evolve
lack of focus on external validity (practicality)
Strengths of professional practice knowledge
holistic, innovative, immediate
Limitations of professional practice knowledge
less reliable, lack of explanations, greater susceptibility to bias
Describe career opportunities and future directions in the field.
- Although more career opportunities exist today than ever before, only a limited number of full-time consulting positions are available.
- Sport and exercise psychology is flourishing
- Trends point to such future directions as an increased interest in psychological skills training and applied work, more counseling and clinical training for sport psychologists, increased emphasis on ethics and competence, increased specialization, some continuing tension between academic and applied sport psychologists, more qualitative research, and the need to take a global perspective.
The four stages that groups go through to move from a mere collection of individuals to a team have been nicknamed
port and exercise groups are characterized by a collective sense of
Identity, distinctive roles, structured modes of communication, and norms.
Two of the most important structural characteristics of groups are
sets of expected behaviors associated with particular jobs or positions
levels of performance, patterns of expected of the person occupying a certain position in a group.
Effective teams possess clearly defined
roles and norms of high productivity
Team Climate develops from how players perceive the
interrelationships among the group members
How is the interrelationships among the group members affected?
social support, proximity, distinctiveness, fairness, and similarity
How does social support affect function?
Provides appraisal information, reassurance, and companionship; reduce uncertainty during times of stress; aid in mental and physical recovery; improve communication skills
The abilities of individual team members are often
not good predictors of how a team will perform
What are some techniques to help foster an individual's sense of contributing to the team effort?
Using videotape, helping players understand their roles, and increasing identity among the team members
the phenomenon by which individual performance decreases as the number of people in the group increases
occurs when a group puts forth less than 100% effort due to losses in motivation—there is a diffusion of responsibility, and individuals feel that others within the group will pick up the slack.
is the total field of forces that act on members to remain in a group.
refers to the degree to which group members work toward a common goal
reflects the interpersonal attraction among group members
Environmental factors (team size, scholarships etc.)
- Contractual responsibility
- Organizational orientation
Personal Factors (motivation, social background)
- individual orientation
- individual differences
Leadership factors (Leader's style or goals)
- leadership behavior
- leadership style
- coach-athlete personalities
- group task
- desire for group success
- group orientation
- group productivity norm
- team ability
- team stability
- task cohesion
- social cohesion
- team stability
- Absolute performance effectiveness
- Relative performance effectiveness
- behavioral consequences
- absolute performance effectiveness
- relative performance effectiveness
How is the cohesion and performance relationship complex?
Both task and social cohesion and interactive and coactive tasks are associated with positive effects on performance. The relation between cohesion and performance also appears to be circular, with performance (team) success leading to increased cohesion, which in turn leads back to increased performance (team success).
What is positively related to a number of important factors, such as group member satisfaction, conformity, social support, group goals, and stability?
What are some other relations that cohesion is related to?
role acceptance, group status, decision-making style, sex, collective efficacy, group norms, ability and experience, imagery, and self-handicapping.
teams higher in cohesion can better resist
disruption; teams staying together longer tend to be more cohesive which leads to improvements in performance
Exercise classes with high feelings of group cohesion have
fewer dropouts and late arrivals than do classes lower cohesiveness
How to build cohesion:
coaches and leaders should communicate effectively, explain individual roles in team success, develop pride within subunits, set challenging group goals, encourage group identity, avoid formation of social cliques, avoid excessive turnover, conduct periodic team meetings, know the team climate, and know something personal about each group member.
Explain a listening technique to improve team climate
Listening Support is the perception that someone else is listening without giving advice or being judgmental.
Explain an emotional technique to improve team climate
emotional support is the perception that another person is providing comfort and caring and is indicating that he/she is on the support recipient's side.
Explain a reality confirmation support technique to improve team climate.
Reality-confirmation support is the perception that another person, who is similar to the support recipient and who sees things the same way, is helping confirm the support recipient's perspective.
Social support functions to provide
appraisal information, reassurance, and companionship; reduce uncertainty during times of stress; aid in mental and physical recovery; and improve communication skills.
The abilities of individual team members are not often good predictors of?
how a team will perform.
How could your team captains help you alleviate or overcome social loafing?
By building a sort of individual contribution into the practices/events
Enhancing social support --> therefore creating trust within the team
An example of a condition where social loafing can occur
offensive linemen in football might not block so hard if the running play is going in the direction opposite to where they are blocking.
Describe 3 conditions that increase the probability that social loafing will occur.
contributions of individual group members are not identified, are dispensable, or are disproportionate to the contributions of other group members.
the sum or blend of those characteristics that make a person unique
Related levels to Personality
1. the psychological core
2. typical responses
3. role-related behaviors
The interactional approach
vies the situation and the individual's personality traits as joint codeterminants of behavior
Which approach to understanding personality has been shown to be the most useful way
Behavior is more accurately predicted when we have knowledge of both
the specific situation and how the person responds to particular situations
focuses on a person's understanding and subjective interpretation of himself and his environment versus fixed traits
What is a better type of predictor of personality in sport settings than general personality tests?
What kind of tests have not proved to be accurate predictors of athletic success and why?
Psychological tests because they must be used ethically when they are used
using psychological tests for selecting athletes for a team or cutting them from a team is
an abuse of testing that should NOT be tolerated
Successful athletes, compared with their less successful counterparts, possess a variety of psychological skills such as?
Cognitive strategies like high-self confidence, better concentration and focus, and use of positive thoughts and imagery.
To better understand someone's personality, the sport and exercise science professional must consider
both personality traits and situations
become an informed consumer by understanding strengths and limits of personality testing
be a good communicator
be a good observer
be knowledgeable about mental strategies.
Personality: the psychological core "The real you"
The most basic level of your personality; it includes your attitudes and values, interests and motives, and beliefs about yourself and your self-worth
Personality: typical responses
are the ways we each learn to adjust to the environment or how we usually respond to the world around us
Personality: Role-related behavior
This behavior is the most changeable aspect of personality: Your behavior changes as your perceptions of the environment change
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