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89 terms

US History Chapters 17-20 Review

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Gilded Age
Because late-nineteenth century Americans tended to tolerate gross waste and corruption so long as it did not interfere with their own pursuit of profit, Mark Twain labelled this period the _________________
Richman's Club
During the Gilded Age, the legislative body known as a "_________________" was the Senate
Religion
The fundamental distinction between the Democrats and the Republicans during the late nineteenth century arose from differences in _________________, geographic location, and ethnic background.
New England
A bastion of Republican party strength during the latter part of the nineteenth century were the __________ states.
Closely
National elections between 1856 and 1912 were characterized by __________________ contests
Grand Army
The mammoth organization of Union Army veterans that quickly became a powerful national political pressure group was the _______________ of the Republic.
Disfranchised
Blacks in the South were not totally __________________ or segregated until southern states enacted literacy tests and poll taxes in the 1890s.
Plessy v. Ferguson 1896
The doctrine of "separate but equal" facilities was handed down by the Supreme Court in _______________________.
Booker T. Washington
The black leader identified with the "Atlanta Compromise" was ____________________.
Accommodation
The black educator Booker T. Washington chose __________________ rather than confrontation.
Lynching
Between 1890 and 1910 there was a dramatic increase in __________ blacks.
China
In 1882 Congress passed a law which in effect stopped immigration from _______________.
Half; 50%
On the eve of the Civil War the American Indians in the West still occupied about ___________________ of the United States.
Constriction
In 1851, the government negotiated a new policy with the Plains tribes based on a divide and conquer strategy. This was known as the __________ policy.
Indians
In its treaties with ____________________, the American government generally showed little interest in honoring them
Farmers
In 1867, the government tried a new strategy toward the Plains Indians, training the reservation Native Americans to become _______________ like other Americans.
Indian Affairs
The government's administration of _________________ was notable over the years for its level of corruption.
Buffalo
The ability of the Plains Indians to resist white expansion was severely damaged by the destruction of the ______________.
Dawes Severalty
In 1887, Congress passed the ___________________ Act, which was intended to destroy traditional tribal cultures.
Virginia City
Probably the most famous of all the gold strikes in the West, the site of the Comstock Lode and the Big Bonanza, was _______________________.
World Trade
A result of the gold and silver rushes of the late nineteenth century was an improved financial position for America in _________________.
Five Square Miles
The Pacific Railway Act of 1862 set the pattern for government land grants by giving the builders of the Union Pacific and Central Pacific railroads __________________ of public land on each side of their right-of-way for every mile of track laid.
Central/ Union
The two railroads joined in 1869 to form the first transcontinental railroad were the __________ Pacific and ____________ Pacific.
Chisholm
Cattle herds were driven across the unsettled grasslands of the __________ Trail on their way to the railroad at Abilene, Kansas.
Open Range
The discovery that cattle could feed on the prairie grasses of the public domain of the northern plains led to the development of ______________________.
Joseph Glidden
Barbed wire was invented by _______________________.
Open Range
Barbed wire destroyed the _________________ cattle industry because it prevented the free movement of cattle.
Railroads
In the 25 years after the Civil War, ________________ were probably the most significant element in American development.
Intergraded Systems
The emphasis in railroad construction after 1865 was on organizing ___________________.
Agents
American land-grant railroads in the late nineteenth century sent _____________ overseas to recruit likely settlers and purchasers of railroad land.
Iron Manufacturing
After the railroads, the second most important development in America's industrial advance in the late nineteenth century was the transformation of _______________________.
Bessemer
The __________ process directed a stream of air into a mass of molten iron, burning off impurities, and greatly lowered the price of steel.
Wizard of Menlo Park
Known as the "____________________," the inventor of the phonograph and the electric light bulb was Thomas A. Edison.
Markets
From 1873 to 1893, the economy experienced intense competition for _________________.
Rebates
Railroads commonly encouraged large shippers to use their lines through giving them _________________.
Unstable
As a result of the intense competition among railroads, the railroads were ________________ and vulnerable to any downturn in the business cycle.
Steel
Andrew Carnegie dominated the __________ industry.
United States Steel
When J. P. Morgan assembled ______________________, he formed the first billion dollar corporation.
Rockefeller
By the middle of the 1880s, __________ monopolized the oil industry in the United States.
Organizer
John D. Rockefeller's success was due primarily to his talents as an ______________ and his meticulous attention to detail.
Department Stores
The major development in retailing during this period was the growth of huge urban ___________________.
Charles Darwin
The theory of evolution by natural selection which helped Americans justify their exploitation of others was the work of ____________________.
Social Darwinism
Prominent advocate of _____________________, William Graham Sumner was identified with the phrase "it's root, hog, or die."
Monopolies
Generally speaking, the formation of _________________ during the 1870s caused a drop in prices.
Edward Bellamy
The novelist who described America evolving into an ideal socialist state was ____________________.
Grange
The National _________________ of the Patrons of Husbandry was founded in 1867 by Oliver H. Kelly.
Regulate
Granger-controlled legislatures attempted to ________________ railroad rates.
Wabash
The Supreme Court decision in the _______________ case concerned early railroad regulation.
Cease and Desist order
The federal regulatory board, established in 1887 by Congress to supervise the affairs of railroads, investigate complaints, and issue "___________________" orders against railroads acting illegally, was the Interstate Commerce Commission.
Laizzes Faire
The creation of the Interstate Commerce Commission in 1887 challenged the philosophy of ___________________.
Sherman Antitrust
In 1890, Congress tried to restore competition by outlawing the restraint of interstate trade by corporate monopolies with the __________ Act.
Knights of Labor
The first union to welcome blacks, women, and immigrants into its ranks was the _____________________.
Haymarket Square riot
As a result of the __________, membership in the Knights of Labor declined quickly because the public associated unions with violence and radicalism.
American Federation of Labor (AFL)
Established in 1886, the __________ was the prime example of "bread and butter" unionism.
Eugene Debs
The leader of the American Railway Union in its dramatic 1894 strike against the Pullman Palace Car Company was ___________________.
Cleveland
President _________________ intervened in the Pullman strike on the pretext that the mail had to be delivered.
Concentrated
In the late nineteenth century, wealth, power, and influence were increasingly ____________________ among the largest financiers.
Efficiency
As a result of the centralization and concentration of industry in the late nineteenth century _________________ increased in industries where close coordination of output, distribution, and sales was important.
Skilled
In general, the workers who were usually well-off as a result of late nineteenth-century industrialization were __________________ workers.
Employer, (higher hand) Worker
As a result of late nineteenth-century industrial development, personal contact between ______________ and _______________ tended to disappear.
Sales Persons
In the new types of work, women found in the late nineteenth century, they were often hired as ____________________ in department stores because managers considered them easier to control than men.
Farmers
When compared to others in the late nineteenth century, ______________ experienced declining status.
Public Education
After 1870, American _________________ changed steadily in response to the many social and economic changes of the era.
Emigration
The main reason for ___________________ to the United States during the late nineteenth century was the desire for economic betterment.
Almost Nobody
Before 1882, Americans restricted __________ from immigrating to the United States.
Southern, Eastern
Beginning in the 1880s, the source of American immigration shifted to new immigrants from _________________ and ________________ Europe.
Social Darwinist
One of the causes which eventually led to restriction on immigration was the fears of __________________________ that immigrants would undermine American "racial purity."
American Protective
The new nativism of the late nineteenth century was exemplified by the ____________________________Association.
Ethnic Neighborhoods
The "new" immigrants from eastern and southern Europe settled in ______________________ in the urban centers.
Crowded
The urban ethnic neighborhoods of the late nineteenth century were __________________ and unhealthy.
Jacob Riis
The author of How the Other Half Lives (1890), the classic description of slum conditions in the United States, was ______________________.
Street Cars
As a result of the __________________, American cities expanded their geographical area enormously as the upper- and middle-classes fled city centers.
Skyscrapers
Louis H. Sullivan was closely associated with the development of the __________________.
Sports
Late nineteenth-century spectator _________________ were notable for their mixture of upper- and working-class interests
James Naismith
In 1891, ___________________ invented the game of basketball.
Social Gospel
Supporters of the _____________________ Movement believed the church should focus on improving the lives of the poor, ending child labor, and regulating the power of big corporations.
Washington Gladden
The most influential preacher of the Social Gospel Movement was _____________________.
Settlement Houses
The community centers started by idealistic young people to guide and help the urban poor were _____________________________.
Jane Addams
The founder of Hull House was _______________________.
Libraries
Industrialist Andrew Carnegie donated millions of dollars to help build _______________.
Joseph Pulitzer
The first newspaper editor to reach a truly massive audience without abandoning his basic integrity was ________________________.
Harvard
In 1869, __________ introduced the elective system and took the lead in reforming higher education in the Gilded Age.
Morrill
The __________________ land-grant university system was co-educational from the start.
Vassar
________________ College holds the distinction of being the first college for women.
Herbert Spencer
The most influential social Darwinist was the English thinker ___________________.
John Dewey
The educator __________________ insisted that education was the fundamental method of social progress.
Fredrick Jackson Turner
In his frontier thesis, _______________________ argued that the frontier gave Americans their unique character.
Mark Twain
The author of novels such as Huckleberry Finn, whose acute reportorial eyes and ears caught the spirit of his age, was ____________________.
Pragmatism
The effects of Darwinism in America were apparent in the philosophy of __________, which stated that all truths are constantly evolving and can be judged only by their concrete results.