IBBio SL Year 1: Vocab Mega Quiz
This vocab quiz is made from your definitions.
Terms in this set (311)
Graphical representation of the variability of data.
Average of a set of values.
Demonstrates the spread of the data around the mean and therefore indicates variability. 68% of data falls within plus or minus one standard deviation of the mean.
Statistical test used to compare the significance of the difference in the mean between data sets.
A relationship between two variables (when x changes so does y). Can be positive or negative. Does not necessarily imply causation.
A causative relationship between two variables: x causes a change in y.
Spread, range or variation in a set of data.
Simple bacteria (Escherichia coli)
1. Living organisms are composed of cells. 2. Cells are the smallest units of life. 3. Cells come from pre-existing cells.
ex. bacteria. They carry out all the functions of life.
Functions of life
Movement, Respiration, Sensitivity, Growth, Reproduction, Excretion, Nutrition
Different sizes of molecules. ex. molecules (1 nm), thickness of membranes (10 nm), viruses (100 nm), bacteria (1 µm), organelles (up to 10 µm), and most cells (up to 100 µm)
International units of measurement. Relative sizes are measured in nanometers (nm)
Enlarging something in appearance to make it more visual. However, not changing the physical aspect of the specimen. Magnification could be stated (for example, ×250) or indicated by means of a scale bar--would be measured macrometers (SI unit). Measured (ruler)/actual (converted to cm)
Surface Area to Volume ratio
The ratio that shows the inverse relationship between surface area and volume. How much the cell can contain in proportion to how large it is.
Organisms that contain more than one cell. For example, humans.
Interaction of component parts: the whole is greater than the one
The process by which a less-specialized cell develops or matures to become more distinct in form and function. Process includes: Signal received - Activate and Deactivate genes - Commit - Differentiate. Stem cells can differentiate into any other type of cell. When activating genes to become specialized, all active genes set code for specialized cell
Threaputic uses of stem cells
Leukemia--therapeutic transplantation. Burns--therapeutic cloning.
Part of the cell that protects the cell from the outside environment, maintains the shape, and prevents the cell from bursting due to internal pressure.
Controls the substances moving into and out of the cell. contains integral and peripheral proteins and pass through with passive and active transport.
Cell fluid, contains enzymes used catalyze the chemical reactions
Cell surface proteins used for exchange of DNA Material.
Made of a protein called flagillin. Helps bacteria move around because the motor motion (flagella is like a propellar).
They are formed in the cytoplasm in a Prokaryotic Cell. They bind messenger RNA and transfer RNA to synthesize polypeptides and proteins.
Region in the cell containing DNA material that is not protected by a membrane.
Prokaryotic cells divide by binary fission, which is a method of asexual reproduction involving the splitting of the parent organism into two separate organisms.
The movement of molecular substances across the cell along the concentration gradient (high to low) without any use of chemical energy.
The movement of molecules across a cell membrane in the direction against their concentration gradient, i.e. moving from a low concentration to a high concentration. With chemical Energy.
Part of the cell that controls entry and exit of substances, made of a phospholipid bilayer.
Part of the cell that contains enzymes and solutes for metabolic reactions, water-based fluid.
Cell organelle that produces proteins. Can be free or attached to membranes.
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
Cell organelle that acts as a tunnel system.
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
Cell organelle where attached ribosomes produce proteins for export from the cell.
Membrane-bound vesicle containing enzymes, used for digestion or recycling of nutrients within the cell.
Cell organelle that packages proteins to be exported through exocytosis.
Cell organelles that manages respriation the production of ATP.
Cell organelle that stores genetic material
Animal Eukaryotic Cells
Cells: have nucleus, mitochondria, lysosomes but NO cell wall or chloroplasts.
Plant Eukaryotic Cells
Cells: have nucleus. Additioanally includes cell wall, chloroplast, and vacuole.
1) Plant Cell: cell wall 2) Animal cell: glycoproteins that form the extracellular matrix (used for cell support, adhesion, and movement)
Hydrophobic phosphate heads
phosphates that turn into each other because they repell water
Hydrophillic phosphate tails
phosphates that face outwards because they attract water
attached to an inert, insoluble material
binding of a cell to a surface or substrate
a movement of biochemicals and other atomic or molecular substances across cell membranes
the movement of molecules across a cell membrane in the direction against their concentration gradient (low to high)
the passive movement of particles from a high area of concentration to a low area of concentration
the passive movement of water molecules, across a partially permeable membrane, from a region of lower solute concentration to high solute concentration
occurs when the molecules properties allow it pass across the membrane
passive net movement of particles from regions of high concentration to low concentration through selectively permeable membranes faciliated by carrier proteins
protein structures that are used in active transport, pumping molecules across a membrane, against the concentration gradient
Adenosine triphosphate - short-term energy molecule used in active process in cells.
Membrane-bound organelles used for transporting proteins and other molecules through the cell (and out for exocytosis or in for endocytosis)
Rough endoplasmic reticulum
Folded membrane with attached ribosomes, used for production of polypeptides for export from the cell.
Organelle - used to package and prepare molecules for export from the cell.
Process: taking molecules into the cell using vesicles and the fluid properties of the membrane.
Process: exporting molecules from the cell using vesicles and the fluid properties of the membrane.
An active period in the life of a cell when many metabolic reactions occur, including protein synthesis DNA replication and an increase in the number of mitochondria and/or chloroplasts (G1, synthesis, G2)
Mitosis produces two gentically identical nuclei (growth, tissue repair and asexual reproduction involve mitosis).
Chromatin condenses, chromosomes replicate, centrioles at poles, spindle microtubules produced. nuclear memebrane degenerates.
Chromosomes line up at the equator, spindle microtubules attach to the centromeres.
Chromatids pulled to poles by spindle microtubules.
New nuclei form, cytokinesis begins.
The splitting of the cell.
Uncontrolled cell division
A structure that contains the genes.
Two identical strands joined by a common centromere as a result of a chromosome that duplicated during the S phase of the cell cycle.
A centriole is a small set of microtubules arranged in a specific way.
They form a protein structure that divides the genetic material in a cell. The spindle is necessary to equally divide the chromosomes in a parental cell into two daughter cells during both types of nuclear division: mitosis and meiosis.
Process by which the DNA molecule relieves the helical stress by twisting around itself.
A constriction point which divides the chromosome into two sections, or "arms". The location of the centromere on each chromosome gives the chromosome its characteristic shape, and can be used to help describe the location of specific genes.
Molecules with a slight positive end and slightly negatively end
Strong attractions involving the sharing of electrons between atoms.
Weak attractions between polar molecules
Molecules found in living things.
Carbon and hydrogen
Foundation of organic molecules
Element that is essential for the production of amino acids.
Element necessary for aerobic respiration.
Element found in some amino acids. It also supports chemosynthetic bacteria in deep-sea vents.
Element essential in the formation of the phospholipid bilayer.
Element that builds the exoskeleton of animals and allows synaptic transmission between nerve cells.
Element that is the oxygen-binding component in animals and used to make chlorophyll and takes part in photosynthesis in plants.
Element that is essential in generating an action potential for nerve impulse; main cation in plasma.
Element that influences nerve impulses and osmosis; main cation in cytoplasm.
Substances that attach to substances with the same properties.
Substances that attach to substances with different properties.
The action of water moving up the xylem against gravity
The attractive force exerted upon the surface molecules of a liquid by the molecules beneath that tends to draw the surface molecules into the bulk of the liquid and makes the liquid assume the shape having the least surface area
Property of being unattracted to water.
Property of being attracted to water.
A molecule or atom with different total numbers of protons and electrons that cause it to be postively or negatively charged.
Molecules: hydrophilic phosphate heads with hydrophobic lipid tails, used in making plasma membranes.
Compounds that contain carbon and are found in living things (glucose,ribose,amino acids, glycerol, fatty acids)
Compounds that also contain carbon but are not found in living things (oxides of carbon, hydrogen carbonates, carbonates)
A simple organic compound containing both a carboxyl and an amino group (22 different protein-making amino acids -- only 20 are coded for in genetic code)
Functional group that consists of a nitrogen atoms attached by single bonds to hydrogen atoms.
Carboxylic Acid Group
Organic compound that contains an oxygen double-bonded to the carbon and a hydoxyl group (-OH) that can be lost to form new bonds.
An important amino acid that is coded by the START codon in mRNA (AUG) - first amino acid in all polypeptide chains.
Basic mono-saccharide (single unit) hexose (6-carbon) sugar molecule that is used in respiration (chemical store of energy)
Basic mono-saccharide (single unit) pentose (5-carbon) sugar molecule. It is found in RNA and a similar version in DNA.
Hydrocarbon chains of many lengths, extended by adding CH2 units (efficient store of energy)
A simple sugar alcohol to make triglycerides-- lipids.
Any of the class of sugar that connot be hydrolyzed to give a simpler sugar (glucose, galactose, fructose)
Any of the class sugar whose molecules contain two monosaccharide residues (maltose, lactose, sucrose)
A carbohydrate whose molecules consist of a number of sugar molecules bonded together (starch, glycogen, cellulose)
Process of making bonds between molecules (Water out)
Process of breaking bonds between molecules (Water in)
Any large group of organic compounds occuring in foods and loving tissues and include sugars, starch, and cellulose. Contain hydrogen and oxygen in the same ratio as water (2:1) and typically can be broken down to release energy in the animal body.
Any of a class of nitrogenous organic compounds that consist of large molecules composed of one or more long chains of amino acids and are essential part of all living organisms, especially as structural components of body tissues such as muscle, hair, collagen.
Organic molecules: long-chains of carbon. Hydrophobic. Can be fats (solid) or oils.
Occurs during S-phase of interphase, process that makes exact copies of all DNA on all chromosomes made
Complementary base pairing
Ensures identical copies of DNA (A&T, C&G)
Act as a template for the new strands
Makes complementary strand on leading strand
Unwinds DNA and breaks H-bonds between base pairs
Collected by DNA polymerase and attached to new strand by complementary base pairing
Chromosomes and their identical copy
A double-helix: it has two strands that twist around each other. Each strand is made of single units called nucleotides. It has a sugar-phosphate backbone. Bases join the two strands by hydrogen bonds. These bases are cytosine, guanine, adenine and thymine.
A single unit in DNA.
The sequences of bases.
A pair of intertwined parallel helices.
The sugar-phosphate backbone is the DNA molecule's major structural component. It is composed of alternating ribose sugars and polar phosphate molecules. This means that it is hydrophillic.
A weak bond (weaker than covalent bonds) between two molecules. It holds complementary base pairs together.
An organic compound that owes its property as a base to pairs (adenine, thymine, cytosine, guanine)
Heritable factors that control specific characteristics.
DNA storage molecule: DNA coiled tightly around a protein nucleosome
DNA is a molecule that encodes the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms and many viruses.
A message from the nucleus to the ribosome- instructions for how to put the polypeptide together
Genes are sequences of bases on the parent sense strand that are made in triplets(sets of three bases) and are simply codes for making polypeptides
Transcription is when the copying of DNA is done to make an mRNA for the purpose of protein synthesis.
The process of posting the mRNA out of the nucleus which attaches to the ribosomes. Ribosomes use complementary base pairing to read codons on the mRNA . tRNA molecules with corresponding anti-codons bring the correct amino acid. This leads to polypeptide formation.
The Genetic Code
Sequence of bases on mRNA- this tells the ribosome which amino acid to use
tRNA molecules carry specific amino acids
Chain of amino acids linked together by peptide bonds
RNA is short for "ribonucleic acid", which is a very long, complicated molecule made out of amino acids linked together.
Globular protein that acts as a cataylst for biochemical reactions
region on the surface of an enzyme to which substrates bind and which the catalyses the reaction
Permanent change in the structure of the active site an enzyme so that it can longer carry out its function. Factors that change the structure are temperature, ph, and substrate concentration.
reactant in biochemical reaction
The substrate and active site needs to match each other structurally and chemically. Substrates that re not chemiically or structurally acttracted to the active site wont be able to react.
The inability to digest the enzyme lactase that is usually found in milk.
Enzyme used to break down lactose sugar into glucose and galactose
The controlled release of energy from organic compounds in cells in the form of ATP
Combination of adenosine and tri-phosphate (ADP + Phosphate Ion)
Combination of adenosine and di-phosphate
A 6-carbon organic compound
Glucose split in two
A type of cell respiration that requires oxygen in order to generate energy
A type of cell respiration that occurs when oxygen is absent
Conversion of light energy into chemical energy, in the form of organic molecules.
light dependent reactions
use of light energy to split water and make ATP
light independent reactions
reactions of photosynthesis that 'fix' CO2 to make organic molecules
Polysacchraide energy storage molecule found plants
Polysacchraide structural molecule found plant cell walls
Protein-related chemical that absorbs useful/specific wavelengths of light
the main pigment for photosynthesis
range of wavelengths of light which can be used in the light dependent reactions of photosynthesis
Range of wavelengths of light which can be absorbed by a pigment (e.g. chlorophyll)
Organelle: site of photosynthesis in plants.
heritable factor that controls a specific characteristics
different version of a gene
structual unit consisting of DNA and protein
all the genetic information in an organism
permanent change in the base sequence of a gene
replacement of one base in the sequence with another base
base substitution resulting in a single different amino acid being inserted into the polypeptide
base substitution resulting in a STOP codon replacing an amino acid thus terminating the polypeptide prematurely
base substitution which results in the same amino acid being produced (no effect)
position of a gene on a chromosome
haploid sex cells (sperm and egg)
normal diploid cells
genetic constitution of an individual organism
the set of observable characteristics of an individual resulting from the interaction of its genotype with the environment
condenses DNA onto the protein chromosomes for storage
chromosomes with the same structure
number of pairs of chromosomes in an eukaryotic cell
environmental factor which encourages mutation
environmental factor which encourages mutation, specifically with regard to tumor suppressor genes (causing cancer)
2n (number of chromosomes in a somatic cell)
n (number of chromosomes in a gamete)
formation of eggs in females
formation of sperm in males
a set consisting of 3 chromosomes (not usually identical)
2 duplicated strands of DNA connected by a centromere
DNA replicates, chromosome doubled
exchange of genetic material (point of crossover)
formation of 4 genetically different haploid cells
when homologous chromosomes do not seperate during anaphase I or anaphase II
medical procedure inw hich amniotic fluid form uterus is taken during pregnancy
picture of all chromosomes in a cell to analyze banding size and shape
the alleles of an organism
the characteristics of an organism
an allele that has the same effect on the phenotype whether it is presented in the homozygous or heterozygous state
an allele that only has an effect on the phenotype when present in the homozygous state.
pairs of alleles that both affect the phenotype when present in a heterozygote.
the particular position on homologous chromosomes of a gene.
having two identical alleles of a gene.
having two different alleles of a gene
an individual that has one copy of a recessive allele that causes a genetic disease in individuals that are homozygous for this allele.
testing a suspected heterozygote by crossing it with a known homozygous recessive
genes on the non-homologous region (X) chromosomes are sex linked
DNA is a molecule that encodes the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms and many viruses.
Tells the DNA Polymerase where to start copying
The process of comparing DNA fragments between samples to look for genetic similarities. Electrophoresis produces banding patterns (a 'barcode') that can be compared between samples.
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Used to amplify these samples to generate a useful quantity for testing, through making many exact copies of the DNA.
The location of a gene on a chromosome.
Genes the molecular unit of heredity of a living organism
Type of DNA profiling in which fragments of DNA move in an electric field and are separated according to their size.
An enzyme used to cut the required gene from the genome and to cut into a bacterial plasmid (a loop of bacteria DNA).
A plasmid is a small DNA molecule that is physically separate from, and can replicate independently of, chromosomal DNA within a cell.
The direct manipulation of an organism's genome using biotechnology.
Group of genetically identical organisms or a group of cells derived from the same parent cell.
Removal of nucleus
Diploid cells contain two complete sets of chromosomes.
An embryo is a multicellular diploid eukaryote in its earliest stage of development, from the time of first cell division until birth, hatching, or germination.
An Undifferentiated biological cells that can differentiate into specialized cells and can divide (throughmitosis) to produce more stem cells.
The genetic material of an organism and is encoded either in DNA or, for many types of viruses, in RNA
An organim that produces its own food from organic molecules.
An organism that obtains energy from another organism.
An organims that ingests organic matter from organisms that is living or has recently been killed.
Feeds on autotrophs; herbivores.
Feeds on primary consumers; carnivores, omnivores.
An organims that derives energy from other living organims; there are detritovores and saprotrophs.
An organims that ingests non-living things. ex. earthworms
An organims that lives on / in non-living things and producing digestive enzymes into it, then absorbing the digrtsed products. ex. bacteria
Environment where living organisms live in.
Group of organisms that can interbreed and produce offsprings.
Gruop of organims of the same species who live in the same habitat and time period.
Group of populations living together in an area.
A community of living organisms interacting in a physical environment.
The study of living organisms and their interaction between the environment.
Shows flow of energy through trophic levels of feeding relationship.
The feeding rank in a food chain; 90% of energy is lost through every trophic level.
The precautionary principle states that if we suspect something may cause harm we should not do it (or should stop doing it) until it is proven safe.
green house effect
global warming, green house gasses trapping radiation and raising temperatures.
The interaction of living organisms and the biosphere through the process of phtosynthesis, cell respiration, fossilization and combustion.
The breaking down of organisms after death (decay)
The process of becoming a fossil (which can then become fuel)
The burning of fossil fuels
methane released by animals
green house gases
Includes: water vapour, carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide. They trap radiation within the troposphere, raising temperatures.
Graph that shows the changes in concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide using historical methods. (ex. Mauna Loa and Cape grim stations)
annual pattern in concentration of atmospheric CO2
Group of organisms of the same species who live in the same area at the same time
I+N > E+M
I+N = E+M
I+N < E+M
Rate of population growth is rapid, resources abundant, competition and mortality low
Rate of growth slows down, but the popoulation continues to grow
Reaches the carrying capacity (K), population is stable (high competition, as resources are scarce)
Movement of individuals out of a population
Movement of individuals into a population
Birth: increasing the number of individuals in a population
Death: decreasing the number of individuals in a population
The cumulative change in the heritable characteristics of a population
Small changes upon small changes over many generations
Gene-controlled factors: traits that can be passed on (inherited) by future generations
A permanent change in the chemical structure(nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism)
Process that creates a new organism by combining the genetic material of two organisms
Preservation of favourable variations and the rejection of injurious variations. Mutations that give an advantage are selected for and that give a disadvantage are selected against
Darwin noticed many similarities in the structures of different species: parts of the body which had been adapted for different functions
Variation in alleles of genes. Occurs both within and among populations, and is a result of mutation and sexual reproduction
Humans selectig desirable traits in domesticated animals.
Artificial selection is the foundation of selective breeding. When a farmer notices a favourable trait, that individual will be allowed to reproduce. When some characteristics are selected for or against, other characteristics may also be affected
As layers of sedimentary rock are put down, the inorganic components of plants, animals and prokaryotes are preserved. Shows a transition over time that echoes the development of species through the theory of evolution.
Struggle for survival
Competition for food, predation, parasitism, disease, competition for mates, competition for space
Factor that causes natural selection by increasing a struggle for survival.
Homologous strcuture: 5-boned limb found in many species, evolved (adapted) for different uses.
Effect of natural selection due to selection pressure of use of antibiotics on populations of bacteria.
Its a two name naming system where the genus name is capitalized and the species name should never be capitalized. Also binomial names must be italicized or underlined.
Is the practice and the science of classification. Order: Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
Plant phylum: small furry plants, 50 cm, non vascular, reproduce through spores that are released from stalk capsules
Plant phylum: roots, leaves, short stems, 15m, leaves in section, curled up, xylem and phloem, not woody, spores released sporangia
Plant phylum: woody trees, leaves are needles, up to 100 cm, xylem and phloem, woody, female cones contain seeds
Plant phylum: floweirng plants, roots, stems, leaves, grows up to 100m xylem and phloem, seeds disperse through fruits, pollination through flowers
Animal phylum: no anus, no segmentation
Animal phylum: radial symmetry, mouth, no anus, no segmentation
Platyhelminthes (flat worms)
Animal phylum: bilateral symmetry, mouth, no anus, no segmentation
Annelida (segmented worms)
Animal phylum: bilateral symmetry, mouth and anus, highly segemnted
Animal phylum: bilateral symmetry, mouth and anus, segmented
Animal phylum: bilateral symmetry, mouth and anus, not visisble
Molecules: chemical messengers produced in glands and travel through the blood to their target tissues
FSH (follicle stimulating hormone)
Hormone: stimulates maturing of ovum in the ovary. Produced in pituitary gland.
LH (luteinizing hormone)
Hormone: stimulates release of ovum from the ovary. Produced in pituitary gland.
Hormone: stimulates production of endometrium lining. Produced in ovary.
Hormone: maintains endometrium lining. Inhhibits FSH & LH. Produced in ovary.
Reproductive organ (female): stores and released ova (eggs). Site of meiosis.
Reproductive organ (male): stores and released sperm. Site of meiosis.
Reproductive organ (female): tube that eggs travel down after release. Site of fertilisation.
Reproductive organ (female): womb - muscular sac, site of development of fetus
Reproductive structure (female): blood and nutrient-rich lining of uterus, site of implantation of embryo
Reproductive organ (female): strong muscular sphincter (ring) closing entry to uterus. Mucus plug blocks sperm and bacteria, opens around ovulation.
Reproductive organ (female): entrance to female reproductive system; folds and acidic environment kill bacteria and many sperm.
Reproductive organ (female): external genitalia, includes labia majora (outer lips) and labia minora (inner lips) and pubic hair.
Reproductive organ (female): external nerve-rich structure in female genitalia. Analagous to male penis.
Reproductive organ (male): male genitalia, includes nerve-rich head (glans) and spongy tissue that fills with blood during an erection.
urine-carrying tube, connects to bladder in males and females. In males also carries semen.
haploid cells carrying DNA from the male. X or Y chromosome carried by sperm determines gender at fertilisation
nutrient-rich milky fluid, carries sperm and neutralises acidic conditions of vagina
Reproductive structure (male): attaches testis to sperm duct, site of maturation of sperm cells. Sperm are released from here at orgasm.
Reproductive organ (male): produces alkaline fluid in semen, to neutralise acidic vagina
Reproductive organ (male): produces nutrient-rich semen to help sperm swim. Also produces hormones (prostaglandins) that encourage the uterus to contract, bringing sperm further in.
process: fusion of a haploid sperm cell with a haploid egg cell to make a diploid zygote
sex cells: sperm and eggs. They are haploid - have half a set of chromomes each
process: attachment of an embryo to the endometrium. This is pregnancy.
in-vitro fertilisation (IVF)
process: external fertilisation of eggs; viable embryos are implanted into endometrium to start a pregnancy.
Hormone, male: responsible for pre-natal development of male genitalia, development of secondary sexual characteristic, maintenance of sex drive,
process: release of sperm from the testes, through the sperm duct and urethra and out of the penis