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WW1 CPE Facts
Terms in this set (30)
In 1905, Kaiser Wilhelm proclaimed that Germany would protect Morroco's independence. In 1911, Germany protested a likely French take over of Morroco.
1906, Britain launched the HMS Dreadnought. This was the first of a new class of improved ships.
In 1909, Germany launched the Westfalen. This ship was very similar to the Dreadnought.
1904 and 1907 Britain signed ententes with France and Russia respectively. These were general agreements not firm alliances.
Austria + Bosnia
1908 Austria took over the province of Bosnia from Turkey. This led to Russia supporting the creation of the Balkan league.
1st + 2nd
During the 1st Balkan War, the league turned on Turkey. During the 2nd Balkan War, they turned on each other.
The Balkan League included Serbia, Greece, Romania, and Bulgaria. Russia wanted them to turn against Austria.
Germany attacked with all of their forces to the east of Paris and were stopped in their tracks at the Battle of Marne.
The Galipoli Campaign intended to force a way into the Black Sea. This would allow Britain to attack Germany from the east and send supplies to Russia.
There was an expedition to Mesopotamia for oil. Turkish forces resisted but Britain finally prevailed as the controller of that oil.
The British planned to support the Arabs in a revolt against the Turkish. They promised to help create independent states after the war.
T. E. Lawrence
T. E. Lawrence was a British Intelligence officer who became a military advisor to the Arabs. He helped build geurilla forces against the Turkish.
Battle of Caporetto
In 1917, at the Battle of Caporetto, the Italians were crushed. This led to Britain and France having to prop up their military effort for the rest of the war.
In 1914, the British had 272 primitive aircrafts. In 1918, the RAF had 22,000 planes.
Dreadnoughts were 27,000 tonnes of steel and had 8 guns each. They could send a high explosive device more than 15 kilometers.
Direct Taxes Russia
Direct taxes on income was introduce in Russia in 1916 but this only brought in a small amount of money. They financed the war through borrowing and "indirect" taxes.
Kaiser Wilhelm raised money for the war using loan and savings bonds. He expected to be able to repay this to his citizens at the end of the war when they won.
Germany econ defeat
No one expected defeat so the government was unable to pay back its citizens. This led to hundreds and thousands of Germans losing their savings.
Defense of the Realm Act (DORA) gave the British government wide powers over the citizens. They could take land and property for military use.
In 1915, the Tsar had take over as commander-in-chief of the Russian troops. He controlled from Mogilev so his presence changed nothing.
Petrograd had industrial areas that were filthy and disease ridden but it was also a center for Russian high society. It's name was changed from St. Petersburg.
In March 1917, disorder broke out in Petrograd. 20,000 workers were locked out of their steel factory when talks about pay didn't go well.
250,000 workers went on strike in Petrograd. The police managed to settle one crowd by firing into it but there were still many protesters.
Lenin + Germany
Lenin made a deal with the Germans to pass through Switzerland on a train. This train was not stopped by police or customs officers who would have arrested him for being a citizen of the enemy country.
Bolsheviks spread their view that war against Germany and Austria only benefited Russia's ruling class. This led to peasants deserting their armies.
Decree on Land
Lenin's decree on land allowed the peasants to divide the land among themselves. This brought Lenin support from people in the countryside.
Decree on Peace
Lenin's decree on peace meant that war would be ended at once. Russia was officially abandoning the Eastern front which made her allies mad.
A German submarine sank a British ship called the Lusitania which had a 128 American passengers. This brought the US closer to waging war on Germany.
Woodrow Wilson who was the US president during the war wrote the 14 points. It was clear through these points that he sympathized with the nationalist cause.
In 1918, Germany forced Russia to sign the treaty of Brest-Litovsk. This treaty led to ⅓ of Western Russia, ⅓ of the railway system, most of the the coal mines, and Ukraine being taken away from the empire.
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