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Ch. 1 Intro to Rad Protection
Terms in this set (39)
as low as reasonably achievable
Synonym for ALARA
ORP- optimization for rad. protection
Radon is in what category?
What word describes the overall risk of exposure?
To make patients feel more at ease, we use...
What is BERT?
(background equivalent to radiation time)
comparison of the amount of radiation received by the patient for a procedure with natural background radiation
Example: A chest x-ray is equivalent to 10 days of natural radiation.
Who is responsible to reduce rad dose and minimize exposure time?
the rad tech
A patient may elect to assume the relatively small risk of exposure to ionizing radiation to obtain essential diagnostic medical information when:
1. illness occurs
2. injury occurs
3. a specific imaging procedure for health screening purposes is prudent
Effective measures employed by radiation workers to safeguard patients, personnel, and the general public from unnecessary exposure to ionizing radiation defines:
What is a method that can be used to answer patient questions about the amount of radiation received from a radiographic procedure?
What are natural sources of ionizing radiation?
radioactive elements in the crust of the earth and in the human body
An equivalent dose as low as 0.25 Sv (25 rem) delivered to the whole body may cause what within a few days?
A decrease in the number of lymphocytes in the circulating blood
The degree to which the diagnostic study accurately reveals the presence or absence of disease in the patient, defines what?
What was the total average annual effective dose from manmade and natural radiation as of 1987?
3.6 mSv (360 mrem) per year
An effective radiation safety program requires a firm commitment to radiation safety by:
1. facilities providing imaging services
2. radiation workers
What is recognized as the MAIN adverse health effect rom the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear power accident?
increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer in children and adolescents
produced while radiation penetrates body tissues primarily by ejecting electrons from the atoms composing the tissue
Damage to living tissue of animals and human beings exposed to
Injury on the cellular level caused by sufficient exposure to ionizing
radiation at the molecular level.
effective dose (EfD)
takes into account the dose for all types of ionizing radiation to irritated organs or tissues in the human body
uses weighting factors for each body part to account the chance of each of these body parts for developing radiation-induced cancer (or genetic damage in reproductive organs)
full range of frequencies and wavelengths of electromagnetic waves
Electric and magnetic fields that fluctuate rapidly as they travel through space, including radio waves, microwaves, visible light, and x-rays.
equivalent dose (EqD)
radiation quantity used for radiation protection purposes when a person receives exposure from various types of ionizing radiation
attempts to numerically specify the differences in biologic harm that are produced by different types of radiation
enables the calculation of EfD
Biologic effects of ionizing radiation or other agents on generations yet unborn
removal of electron
foundation of the interactions of x-rays with human tissue
Produces positively and negatively charged particles (ions) when
passing through matter
manmade/ artificial radiation
made by humans
-consumer products, air travel,medical, nuclear
as of 198, manmade contributed to 0.65mSv (65 mrem) to the average annual radiation exposure of U.S.
natural background radiation
Terrestrial- radioactive materials in the crust of the earth
Cosmic- solar from the sun, and galactic beyond the solar system
Internal- from radionuclides in the body tissue
-when increased because of human actions, it is termed 'enhanced natural sources'
occupational and nonoccupational doses
expressed as EfD
changes in blood count
energy that passes from one location to another and can have many manifestations
An unstable nucleus that emits one or more forms of ionizing radiation to achieve greater stability.
causes 55% of human exposure to natural background radiation
Traditional unit of measure for the EqD.
SI unit of measure for the EqD.
Ionizing radiation is both beneficial and destructive. True/ False
On what levels, does ionizing radiation produce electrically charged particles that cause biological damage?
molecular, cellular, and organic
Radiation produced as a consequence of nuclear weapons testing and
chemical explosions in nuclear power plants.
contains two protons and two neutrons
What is absorbed dose determined by?
How Does Mercury Get Into Fish?
according to the authors, firms that employ proportional hedges increase the percentage of forward - cover as the maturity of the exposure lengthens
The general public perceives a greater risk from a hazard when it:
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