28 terms

# Chapter 1: online

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Illusory correlation refers to
the perception of a relationship between two variables that does not exist.
If the correlation between the physical weight and reading ability of children is +0.85, this would indicate that
better reading ability is associated with greater physical weight among children.
To assess the impact of test difficulty on persistence of effort, researchers plan to give one group of children relatively easy tests and another group more difficult tests. To reduce the chance that the children in one group are more intelligent than those in the other group, the researchers should make use of
random assignment.
If the points on a scatterplot are clustered in a pattern that extends from the upper left to the lower right, this would suggest that the two variables depicted are
negatively correlated.
On a 10-item test, three students in Professor Hsin's advanced chemistry seminar received scores of 2, 5, and 8, respectively. For this distribution of test scores, the standard deviation is equal to the square root of
6.
During the past year, Zara and Ivan each read 2 books, but George read 9, Ali read 12, and Marsha read 25. The median number of books read by these individuals was
9
A lopsided distribution of scores in which the mean is much larger than both the mode and median is said to be
skewed.
Rodesia insists that Dr. Phillip's theory of aggression be checked against observable evidence. She is demonstrating the scientific attitude of
skepticism.
Surveys indicate that people are much less likely to support "welfare" than "aid to the needy." These somewhat paradoxical survey results best illustrate the importance of
wording effects.
People often fail to make accurate generalizations because they are unduly influenced by ________ cases.
vivid
To accurately infer cause and effect, experimenters should use
random assignment
Any factor such as infant nutrition which can vary in its quality or quantity is called a
variable.
Central tendency is to variation as ________ is to ________.
mean; standard deviation
A statement describing how a researcher measures a research variable is known as a(n)
operational definition.
Which of the following is a measure of the degree of variation among a set of scores?
standard deviation
Professor Delano suggests that because people are especially attracted to those who are good-looking, handsome men will be more successful than average-looking men in getting a job. The professor's prediction regarding employment success is an example of
hypothesis
In a written report of their research, psychologists specify exactly how anxiety is assessed, thus providing their readers with a(n)
operational definition.
Some animal protection organizations want to replace the use of animals in research involving ________ with research involving ________.
experimentation; naturalistic observation
A correlation between physical attractiveness and dating frequency of +0.60 would indicate that
less frequent dating is associated with lower levels of physical attractiveness.
Statistics are tools that help us to avoid
illusory correlations.
In a psychological experiment, the factor that may be influenced by the manipulated experimental treatment is called the ________ variable.
dependent
To assess the influence of self-esteem on interpersonal attraction, researchers either insulted or complimented students about their physical appearance just before they went on a blind date. In this research, the dependent variable was
interpersonal attraction.
On a series of coin tosses, Oleg has correctly predicted heads or tails seven times in a row. In this instance, we can reasonably conclude that Oleg's predictive accuracy
is a random and coincidental occurrence.
After noting that a majority of professional basketball players are African-American, Ervin concluded that African-Americans are better athletes than members of other racial groups. Ervin's conclusion best illustrates the danger of
generalizing from vivid cases.
In an experimental study, men with erectile dysfunction received either Viagra or a placebo. In this study, the drug dosage (none versus peak dose) was the
independent variable.
By testing their predictions with the observational method of science, psychologists are using a(n)
empirical approach.
Formulating testable hypotheses before conducting research is most directly useful for restraining a thinking error known as
hindsight bias.
The placebo effect best illustrates the impact of ________ on feelings and behaviors
positive expectations