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Terms in this set (129)
______________ is a process of collecting information to make decisions
assessment
7 types of decisions assessments help to make:
screening, identification, tx planning, progress monitoring, resource allocation, program evaluation, accountability
_____________ is quick, specific, cost effective, and highly sensitive way of identifying unrecognized problems
screening
____________ involves differentiating between a language difference and a language disorder
identification
____________ for special education and related services OR covered by health care
eligibility
3 criteria for special ed services:
disability, need for special ed, negative academic/functional impact
___________ ___________ involves enhancing competence and building capacity
intervention planning
___________ ____________ is assessing if the child is reaching goals or state standards
progress monitoring
___________ __________ is assessing if additional resources are needed in schools or for new roles as SLPs
resource allocation
____________ ___________ assesses effectiveness of intervention programs based on scientific evidence and data support
program evaluation
______________ assesses if the school or ASHA are meeting needs of all learners measured by standards, progress, and rewards
accountability
____________ use one technique with predetermined questions and responses
tests
2 types of tests:
norm referenced, criterion referenced
5 types of assessment techniques:
records review, interviews, observations, samples, tests
____________ _____________ tests compare an individuals performance to others such as IQ or SAT
norm referenced
____________ __________ tests compare an individuals performance to an establishes criterion such as PRAXIS
criterion referenced
2 types of assessment:
traditional, dynamic
______________ assessment measures what a stable learner knows using standardized procedures to compare to the normative sample
traditional
_____________ assessment measures what an active learner is in the process of learning given supports to differentiate an LD from a lack of experience
dynamic
results are positive, has disorder =
true positive
results are negative, has disorder =
false negative
results are positive, does not have disorder =
false positive
results are negative, does not have disorder =
true negative
3 education laws:
IDEA, NCLB, FERPA
2 civil rights laws:
ADA, 504
3 health and human services legislation:
medicare, medicaid, HIPAA
__________ provides free and appropriate public education for children with disabilities (FAPE) for EI and special ed services
IDEA
__________ is birth-3
EI
__________ had four themes for accountability for results, emphasis on research, expanding parental options, and expanding flexibility to improve student achievement
NCLB
_____________ is federal law protecting privacy of student education records
FERPA
____________ replaced NCLB and gave the power back to the states with more flexibility for testing, option to adopt CCSS, and help with failing schools
ESSA
____________ is for individuals with disabilities NOT covered under IDEA which prohibits discrimination in schools/work
ADA
__________ prohibits discrimination on the basis of disability in programs and activities both public and private that receive federal funding
504
504 is for __________, ADA is for _________
students, civilians
_____________ is a federal insurance program for those 65+ and some disabilities (not hearing aids)
medicare
______________ is jointly funded by federal and state to provide medical assistance for ppl with low income
medicaid
____________ specifies standards for transmitting health information to protect privacy and security
HIPAA
4 parts of Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975:
IEP, PEP, least restrictive environment, due process
____________ is a document for stating a child's disability and how it affects academics, includes measurable goals and progress toward them, and service delivery of all team members
IEP
_______ is nondiscriminatory assessment for specific purposes to provide information on educational needs in all areas by multidisciplinary teams
PEP
_________ _________ is the parents right to have a hearing to resolve conflicting opinions and challenge decisions about student eval/placement
due process
___________ assesses the students response to intervention by providing teaching before labeling a disability
RTI
3 tiers of RTI
1 core classroom instruction, 2 small group instruction, 3 individual daily tx
___________ measures qualities of stats by greater than, equal to, less than
magnitude
___________ __________ are adjacent scores are equal distance from each other
equal intervals
__________ ___________ is a point where none of the scale exists
absolute zero
4 scales of measurement:
nominal, ordinal, interval, ratio
____________ scales are values represented by names (gender, regions, SSN)
nominal
___________ scales are descriptive labels or numbers measured by magnitude only (good/poor/fair, class rank/percentile)
ordinal
___________ scale uses standard units for comparison with equal distance between scores (SAT, SLP tests)
interval
___________ scale allows scores to be compared by absolute zeros (weight, height)
ratio
______________ are scores within a set represented in tables or graphs
distributions
_________ ___________ is a measure of how the data clusters around the average
central tendency
3 measures of central tendency
mean, median, mode
___________ skew tails off to lower end, most scores are high
negative
___________ skew tails off to high end, most scores are low
positive
measures of __________ refers to differences among scores and how they spread out around the mean
dispersion
3 measures of dispersion
range, variance, standard deviation
____________ = highest - lowest + 1
range
______________ measures each scores deviation from the mean
variance
___________ ________ is the positive square root of the variance for making test comparisons
standard deviation
_________ _________ most scores fall around average, symmetrical shape, mean/median/mode have same value
normal curve
__________ __________ is when we know the proportion of cases between the mean and a particular standard deviation
normal distributions
___________ scores provide a common unit of measurement to compare an individuals score across several measures of the same measure
derived
2 types of derived scores:
relative standing, developmental equivalents
percentile family = __________ scale
ordinal
standard score family = ___________ scale
interval
2 types of developmental equivalents =
age, grade
____________ indicate the percentage of people whose scores are at or below a given raw score
percentile
T score values
mean 50, SD 10
standard score values
mean 100, SD 15
scaled score values
mean 10, SD 3
__________ __________ family has a predetermined mean and standard deviation for each type based on the normal curve
standard score
z scores value
mean 0, SD 1
_____________ = obtained score - predetermined mean / predetermined SD
z score
____________ describe the degree of relationship between variables
correlation
___________ ____________ is the numerical index of strength of relationship between variables
correlation coefficient
the purpose of a __________________ is to compare an individuals performance to peers
norm referenced test
the ____________ ____________ differentiates high and low performers, or those with or without a disorder
normal curve
3 components of a normative sample:
group of subjects, known demographics, compare to others
___________ in statistics all possible measurements or outcomes that are of interest in a study
population
____________ refers to a portion of the population that is representative of a population
sample
characteristics of the US population:
SES, gender, age, region, race, language
the norm sample needs the same _____________ of the population of reference
proportion
sometimes separate __________ for boys and girls because of different scales developmentally
norms
____________ is the degree to which individuals understand and use the language/values/social conventions of a society
acculturation
2 ways to measure acculturation:
SES, maternal education level
general guideline for number of subjects for each group =
100
norms should not have been collected more than ______ years ago
15
_____________ is the percentage of children with LI who received a diagnosis of LI
sensitivity
______________ is the percentage of TLD children who received a diagnosis of TLD
specificity
levels of sensitivity and specificity less than ________ are considered unacceptable
80%
__________ is consistency in measurement, repeatability, and confidence in interpreting scores
reliability
___________ is the degree to which a test measures what is it supposed to measure
validity
2 types of errors that can occur:
bias, random
____________ is an error that affects a groups score in one direction (ex- boys do better than girls)
bias
____________ is an error that can affect the group in any direction due to imprecision of the instrument (ex- mood)
random
__________ _________ reflects the proportion of variability in a set of scores that reflects true difference between individuals
reliability coefficient
reliability coefficient close to 1 means =
high reliability
2 things reliability coefficients provide:
info on test consistency, compute SEM
3 methods of estimating test reliability:
consistency over time, across examiners, across test items
consistency over time =
test retest
consistency across examiners =
inter rater
consistency across test items =
alternate forms, split half, coefficient alpha
_________ __________ (stability) is how much error is due to variability in performance over time
test retest
_________ ___________ is how much measurement errors results from content sampling of different items
item reliability
_________ _________ is a method of item reliability in which the child takes 2 equivalent forms of the same test and correlate scores
alternate forms
2 ways to measure internal consistency:
split half, coefficient alpha
________ ________ is randomly dividing the items that measure the same construct into 2 groups (ex- odd and even)
split half
_________ ___________ is used when 2 testers score the same set of tests independently to compare results
inter rater
factors affecting reliability:
Test length
Test-retest interval
Variability of scores
Guessing
Variation within the test situation
________ _________ theory states that measurement is composed of true ability and random error
true score
sample vs domain =
sample is specific person/time/test and domain is all people/times/tests
___________ is the standard deviation of observed scores around the true score
SEM
2 ways to estimate SEM:
SD of the test, reliability coefficient
low SEM =
higher reliability
___________ __________ is the range of scores in which a person's true score is likely to be found with a specified amount of probability
confidence interval
68% confidence interval = +/-
1.00 SEM
90% confidence interval = +/-
1.64 SEM
95% confidence interval = +/-
2.00 SEM
_____________ _____________ is a strategy for assessing language in children culturally/linguistically different backgrounds
dynamic assessment
assess current performance within 2 weeks of teaching = ______________
pretest/test
3 phases of dynamic assessment:
pretest/test, teach, posttest/retest
mediated learning experience and help developing strategies = __________
teach
compare performance to pretest aim for 80% mastery = _____________
posttest/retest
_____________ ____________ ____________ = help develop learning strategies
mediated learning experience
4 phases of mediated learning experience:
intentionality, meaning, transcendence, competence
____________ are observations during sessions of child responsivity, transfer, and amount of examiner effort
modifiability
4 limitations of dynamic assessment:
little reliability/validity, teacher intensive, schools want standardized, unfamiliar with techniques
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